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I wanted to know of the various alternatives are possible? In question 5 I just wanted to know how I can calculate time before and after the birth of Christ. Thank you.

1)The Roman Emperor Hadrian had a wall built to keep the Scottish out. (to defend Roman Britain from/against an attack by the Scottish).
2) Christianity was introduced (??) into Scotland in the sixth century. (Scotland was converted to Christianity?)
3) General Macbeth killed King Duncan and ruled from 10.. to 1057.
4) In the ninth century Scotland was united under the same king for the first time, as the country struggled to fight off (repulse/repel) invasions from the Vikings.
5) Can you explain to me how to calculate the years (BC, AD). For example, what does 120 AD mean? How can I calculate the time span from 120 AD and the sixth century?

  • English -

    1. OK

    2. I wouldn't use the words in parentheses; there's no way to prove that ALL Scots became Christian.

    3. OK

    4. OK

    5. Conventionally, BC means "Before Christ" and AD means "Anno Domini" (in the year of our Lord). Even though, most scholars think Jesus was born about 3 or 4 BC, it was commonly accepted that all the years labeled BC were before the birth of Christ, and all the years labeled AD were after his birth.

    Currently, there are some historians and others who use the labels BCE (before the common era) and CE (the common era).
    Here is one person's opinion of this:
    http://www.studentsfriend.com/feed/topic11.html
    (first post)

    The BC (or BCE) years/centuries are counted down, so to speak. You can see an example of this here: http://www.history-timelines.org.uk/places-timelines/01-ancient-greece-timeline.htm

    The AD (or CE) years/centuries are counted up, and here is one example:
    http://www.religionfacts.com/christianity/timeline.htm

    Remember that centuries seem to be off by one number. Examples:

    We speak of 5th century Athens:
    5th century BC = the years 500 - 401 BC

    1st century AD = the years 1 - 99 AD

    We speak of the Italian Renaissance as occurring approximately from 1350-1600 AD (14th - 17th centuries AD):
    http://www.paradoxplace.com/Perspectives/Chronologies/Part%202%20%20World%20of%20Middle%20Ages.htm

    I hope this isn't too confusing. I think of all this as a number line in math! It helps a little!!

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