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Hi, I'm trying to start on my argumentatvie essay today and at least get the rough draft done. The topic is Recent changes to Georgia's HOPE scholarship program. I have found a few sources that I can include in the essay but what I need help on is how to start this out. Obviously, being a college student who uses this scholarship, I am against the new changes made to it. So i have my view laid out I just need help getting started.
I'm also following the Toulmin Model for this essay so the steps are:
Claim, Data, Warrant, Backing, Rebuttal, and Qualifier.(2-3 paragraphs on each of these things)
I figured that my claim would be that the state is not doing everything possible to help students stay in college and that the new changes to HOPE are bad for the students who are currently using it. (this is just a rough draft)
I thought my warrant would be that every student has the right to go to college...
the other stuff I haven't figured out yet, but can someone please help me start this out! THanks

  • English -

    I'll give you the text of the lessons I have for writing arguments. Then you can see which information helps you (and discard the rest).

    Lesson 1 - Formal argument (Aristotle's terminology)

    Formal terminology:

    Exordium (claim is the last sentence in this section) – draw reader into your position; build common ground; establish tone and style; establish “credentials;” clarify why this topic and your position are important; build ethos

    Narratio (data; background) – tell the story behind the argument; give necessary background information; clarify the issue; define the issue in terms favorable to your stance

    Propositio (Warrant) – state your central position carefully and clearly; perhaps set the stage for important sub-points

    Refutatio (Rebuttal) – stating the opposition’s viewpoint(s) and explaining why they are wrong

    Confirmatio (Backing) – develop and support your own position/stance; use traditional thesis/ support format (including examples, facts, statistics to support your claim); avoid logical fallacies; argue from authority, definition, analogy, cause/effect, value, purpose; use logos; rank supporting points

    Digressio – optional; touching or entertaining anecdote; brief; build pathos or ethos

    Peroratio – conclusion; review of main points in your favor; reference to position statement in intro; plea for action; end strongly, with conviction

    Other possible patterns of organization: You may or may not care about these.

    ~~Refute strongest opposition point
    ~~State own case
    ~~Confirm own position
    ~~Refute weaker opposition point

    ~~Own proposition as open-ended question
    ~~State case
    ~~Examine and refute opposition
    ~~Examine and confirm own position

    ~~Offer rival proposition
    ~~Offer own position
    ~~Confirm own position
    ~~Refute opposition

  • English -

    There might be ideas in here that'll be useful:

  • English -

    And this is the BEST website I believe to help you with all this:

    Be sure to click on Read More for each section.

  • English -

    Now ... between what your teacher has taught you and all the information above, you should be able to plan out your whole paper.

    And here are the the instructions I give every student, no matter what type of paper he/she is writing:

    DON'T start any paper's first draft by writing the introduction! How can you introduce a paper that you haven't written yet?

    Follow the writing process, whether you're writing for science, history, English, or whatever:

    Prewriting: Brainstorm, research, plan, outline, thesis statement

    Writing: Write first draft by starting with section II of your outline; write the introduction after the body of the paper is written; write the conclusion last.

    Polishing: Revise, concentrating first on the body of the paper, then the intro, then the concl (revision = making sure ideas are logical and sequential and support your thesis); proofread (spelling, grammar, usage, etc.)

    Do you have a thesis yet? Have you done your brainstorming (and maybe research) yet? Have you written an outline?
    Check in the Essay & Research Paper Level.

  • English -

    Thank you for all this!
    I have no brainstorming done yet, but I guess that's how I'll start...and then start with the body paragraphs.
    Thank you, I'll let you see the firs draft once it's written.

  • English -

    OK -- just let me know! =)

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