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I have finished my assignment for my class and I wanted to have someone read it and make sure I do not need any changes, and also if my APA formats are correctly identified.

The assignment:Ethnic Groups and Discrimination

·Resources: Racial and Ethnic Groups, the Internet, and the University Library

·Select an ethnic group to which you belong. If you identify with more than one group, choose the group with which you most identify or about which you would like to learn more.

·Write a 700- to 1,050-word essay in which you answer the following questions:
Conduct research to determine if the ethnic group colonized or if it immigrated to the United States. What country did they originate from and why did they enter the U. S.?

Did the group face prejudice, segregation, racism, or any combination of the three? If so, explain how and why?

Define all of the following terms and explain whether or not your ethnic group was affected by any of the these forms of discrimination? Provide examples. Refer to the text for the definitions.

Dual labor market
·Environmental justice issues
·Affirmative action
Double jeopardy
·Institutional discrimination
·Reverse discrimination
·Glass ceiling, glass walls, or glass escalator

If your group did not experience these forms of discrimination, did they participate in them? If so, explain.

Do you culturally identify more with the ethnic group you examined, with United States mainstream culture, or with both equally?

·Format your essay according to APA standards.
·Cite your sources with in-text citations and full references. See the Axia Writing Style Handbook post in the Course Materials Forum.

Here is my essay. Can you read it over and see if I missed anything, and check and see if I did my APA Format correctly? I need to earn all my points for this assignment just want to make sure it is good.

Ethnic Groups and Discrimination

Nicole McGuire


July 22, 2010

Tina Luzzi

African Americans make up approximately 13.5% (2009 U.S. Census Bureau), of the

United States population. This group evolved from slaves that were taken from various

parts of the African continent and brought to the United States. African Americans were

enslaved in the United States and officially gained freedom as a people in 1863 with the

signing of the Emancipation Proclamation by then President Abraham Lincoln.

Before, during, and after slavery, African Americans faced prejudice, segregation, as well

as racism. When they first arrived on the shores of the colonies now known as the United

States, the African Americans were segregated from everyone else and kept in holding

cells and then on plantations. Prejudice and racism were automatic because they were

seen as sub-human beasts and savages of sorts.

African Americans were and still are effected by the dual labor market. The

employment market that is geared towards African Americans as a majority has always

been packed with low-paying jobs with little to no chance of advancement. African

Americans often perform or are expected to perform unskilled labor now referred to as

blue collar jobs.

Environmental justice issues have plagued African Americans in the past and continue

to do so today. In the past century, factories emitting toxic fumes and hazardous waste

were positioned near large African American sections of major cities as well as small

towns inhabited by mostly African Americans. Today, in areas of Louisiana along the

Mississippi River known as “Cancer Alley”, petroleum and chemical manufacturing

plans spew fumes and release carcinogenic chemicals near the water supplies of African

Americans. There has long been controversy over this modern issue however no other

ethnic or racial group has the desire to have these companies relocate factories near their

living areas.

African Americans have participated in affirmative action since the very beginning, in

fact, affirmative action was implemented in the United States largely for the benefit of

this group. Affirmative action makes a valiant attempt to make up for past and current

discrimination against a certain group and makes jobs and opportunities that members of

a certain group would not normally be considered for largely accessible for members of

minority groups.

African Americans were and still are victims of relining. Health insurance, mortgages,

and home improvement loans have and in some cases still are denied to residents of

certain residential areas, often portioned out or “redlined” by zip code. In this practice, a

red line is literally drawn on a map around areas that banks and other institutions consider

undesirable. Banks consider residents in and of this area high risk companies and

properties within this area unworthy of their investment. This silent practice still occurs

near inner city neighborhoods inhabited by African Americans and other minorities.

Forms of double jeopardy are aimed at African Americans. One great example is

when African American felons who have served time, completed probation and parole

sentences, and paid full restitution are banned from voting for a life time. This practice

punishes the offender twice, once by serving a sentence of various sorts and then by

loosing voting priveledges. African American women also face a type of double jeopardy

in corporate America because they are a double minority. After shattering corporate

America’s glass ceilings barring women from advancing, African American women are

subjected to yet another glass ceiling because of race.

Institutional discrimination against African Americans exists in public offices,

colleges and universities, as well as corporate America. Factors such as entrance

requirements, hiring practices, as well as structural policies keep the amount of African

Americans in these institutions at a minimum. Systematic and structural policies continue

to keep racial and ethnic groups, such as African Americans, at a disadvantage.

The glass ceiling, glass walls, and glass escalators all have an ill affect on African

Americans in all areas of corporate America. There are advancement limits, though

unspoken, that African Americans are not able to go past. The majority of African

Americans is much more qualified than their White counterparts but will reach the

advancement levels that Whites and other groups will.

I identify with both mainstream United States culture and African American culture

equally. I have been personally subjected to many of the unfair practices mentioned

above however, I have noticed a large change in the past few years that allows me to

better identify as an American. Ceilings are being shattered, invisible lines drawn in the

sand are being kicked through, and affirmative action is allowing member of the African

American race to take leaps and bounds.

References/Works Cited

Rajan, S. (2003, Aug) "A Modified Version of Double Jeopardy -- Rehabilitated African-American Felons Barred From the Voting Box" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia Marriott Hotel, Philadelphia, PA Online <.PDF> Retrieved 2010-07-21

Cokorinos, Lee. 2003. The Assault on Diversity: An Organized Challenge to Racial and Gender Justice. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.

Sturm, S. Guinier, L. (2001). The Future of Affirmative Action. Boston Review. January 2001.

(2009) Americans by the Numbers, U.S. Census Bureau

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