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Could someone read this paper for me and tell me if it is ok? It is the first time that I had to cite APA style and I wasn't really taught how to. I'm really not feeling confident about turning this in. Thanks

Almost everyone lies, from a little white lie, “I love your dress” to politicians’, “No more taxes”, lying is a fact of life.
Pathological lying, otherwise known as mythomania or pseudologia fantastica (PF) is an area of psychology that is not understood very well. According to Birch, Kellen, and Aquino (2006), pathological liars are rare but there is a need for further studies on the topic. Some believe that there are several types of pathological lying and that the term ‘pathological liar’ is the worst form. (Birch, Kellen,Aquino, 2006)
The difference between a pathological liar and someone who lies excessively is the nature of the lie. When someone with PF lies, it is usually based on reality, for example, a pathological liar probably would not say “I can fly”. When someone without PF lies, they often have a reason for it, but when a pathological liar lies, it often lacks motivation, other than to possibly gain the attention of others. The lies that are told by a pathological liar can often include them in made-up imaginary adventures, either being the victim or the hero. If a pathological liar believes that their lives are dull or uneventful, the attention that they receive from their lies could be an “escape”. The stories that a pathological liar makes up can often be proven wrong, and because of this they could be detrimental to the person. (Birch, 2006)
Not all cases of pathological lying are the same, some are more severe than others. M.J. Stones (1976) found that a 20-year-old Canadian male who was found to have behaviors consistent with a pathological liar could have started lying because his “understanding of his social environment was generally unreliable”. Tests called the
Thought Disorder Grid (TDG) and the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) helped Stones determine this. (Stones, 1976). Other cases are different, for example, a 22 year old woman named Lorraine had a history of lying. Lorraine would make false accusations, claiming that her stepfather wanted to murder her, that her co-worker wanted her dead because Lorraine was “interfering” with her relationship with her boyfriend, and that her childhood friend was stalking her. Her childhood friend, Abby had allegedly been obsessed with Lorraine and had kidnaped her and sent death threats in letters and over the phone. When Abby was confronted about these threats she became so bothered about it that she agreed to check herself in at a psychiatric ward. While at the hospital, she never denied that she had threatened Lorraine or that she had been obessed with her. After Abby was released Lorraine had claimed that she had been abducted by her and held at knifepoint and Abby was sent to prison.
Lorraine had told Abby that she was in danger because she knew someone who had witnessed a murder and she had convinced Abby to help her stage everything. Abby agreed because she wanted to help her. She could have been put in jail for years for kidnapping. Lorraine testified against Abby 16 months after she was put in prison and she was released. Lorraine had made another accusation against a her fiance’s ex-wife and three-year old son, claiming that the three-year-old had started fires, destroying part of a house and sending family members, including Lorraine’s own 2-month old child to
the hospital. Lorraine admitted that she had made up the accusations against her fiance’s ex-wife and her three-year-old son, but she had lied about the reasons for it. (Birch, 2006)
According to Birch, Kellen, and Aquino, Lorraine’s case was a typical case of a pathological liar, but “Lorraine had also demonstrated an unusual ability to recruit others to propagate her lies in a manner that also appeared to be pathologically significant.” As demonstrated by what happened to Abby, she could convince people to take part in her elaborate schemes by lying to them. This only led to consequences for both Lorraine and Abby. When asked why she lied, Lorraine had said she did not really know. It is believed that Lorraine’s lying was most likely motivated by internal needs such as attention, gaining self-esteem, or excitement. She had also believed that ‘families only become close when something tragic happens’. Lorraine said that she had set the fires that she blamed on her fiance’s ex-wife’s 3-year-old son because she wanted to have a “fresh start with her fiance and family.” (Birch, 2006)
According to Constance Holden (1976), pathological liars have about 25% more white matter in their brains, which is the fibers that connect the neurons in the section of the brain behind the forehead that controls personality, complex planning, and judgement. It is also found that pathological lying is connected to antisocial behavior
because pathological liars and people who exhibit antisocial behavior are both found to have around 15% less gray matter in their brains, which means that they have less
neurons. (Holden, 1976). The additional white matter and the lack of gray matter in the brain in the area that controls the personalities of people who are pathological liars is a very important discovery.
The average age that most pathological liars begin lying is 16, but most do not find out that they are pathological liars until they are around the age of 22, like in Lorraine’s case, she was not diagnosed with PF until she was 22 years old.
Because pathological lying is not understood completely, and the cases vary, the exact cause is not known. In Stones’ (1976) research, it was believed that the subject lied because of his environment. According to Holden’s (1976) research, there seems to be a difference between the amount of white matter and gray matter between pathological liars and people without PF. Hopefully there will be more advancements so that pathological lying is understood better.

Birch, Cheryl D. & Kelln, Brad R. & Aquino, Emmanuel P. B. (2006). A review and case
report of pseudologia fantastica. (300-319).

Holden, Constance (2005). A Lying Matter. (1)

Stones, M.J. (1976) A Study of a Pathological Liar. (219-223).

  • English -

    Birch, Cheryl D. & Kelln, Brad R. & Aquino, Emmanuel P. B. (2006). A review and case
    report of pseudologia fantastica. (300-319).

    Holden, Constance (2005). A Lying Matter. (1)

    Stones, M.J. (1976) A Study of a Pathological Liar. (219-223).

  • English -

    Here is a really good website that will create citations in APA, MLA, or Chicago styles: http://citationmachine.net/
    You should enter the information from your sources and double-check them here.

    The content of the paper looks fine, but be sure to take care of any run-ons. I found one in here:
    "The average age that most pathological liars begin lying is 16, but most do not find out that they are pathological liars until they are around the age of 22, like in Lorraine’s case, she was not diagnosed with PF until she was 22 years old."
    Can you find it and fix it?


  • English -


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