Geography (Ms. Sue)

1). What landforms must be crossed by pioneers going from Independence, Missouri, to the Pacific coast?

2). What kinds of movement were taking place in the United States in the last half of the 20th century?

My answers to the questions are the following:

1). Pioneers traveling from Independence, Missouri must blaze trails which crossed prairie, plains, desert, and mountains, moving toward the Pacific.

2). The last half of the 20th century was a time of rapid social change. Large numbers of people began migrating from cities to surrounding suburbs. Some Americans left the colder climates of the Northeast and Midwest for the warmer South and West. Also, immigrants continued to arrive by the hundreds of thousands.

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  1. Right.

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    Ms. Sue
  2. What did Alexis de Tocqueville observe on his visit to the United States that reflected changes that were happening in the country during Jackson's administration? (1 point)
    a strict divide between rich and poor
    a growing spirit of democracy and equality between classes
    a government that limited voting rights strictly to the wealthy
    a growth in racial equality and increased rights for African Americans
    2. Which of the following is an accurate comparison of Adams and Jackson? (1 point)
    Adams supported efforts to promote the growth of businesses, while Jackson supported efforts to help the ordinary man.
    Jackson supported the idea of high tariffs to increase revenue, but Adams wanted to end high tariffs.
    Adams had strong support from the rural areas in the South and West, but Jackson’s strongest supporters were from the North.
    Jackson wanted to improve the territory already under the control of the U.S., but Adams wanted to expand territory to the Pacific Ocean.
    An illustration shows President Andrew Jackson dressed as a king.
    Use the cartoon to answer the question.
    3. Why does the cartoon, from the Bank War in 1832, portray President Jackson as a king? (1 point)
    Many people felt he was motivated by his own wealth.
    Some felt he had used his power inappropriately in vetoing legislation to recharter the Bank.
    Some felt there remained questions about the legitimacy of the election that put him into office.
    Many people believed that his anti-Bank stance was to serve the interests of aristocrats.
    4. Who was President Jackson's vice president that led the resistance to the Tariff of 1828? (1 point)
    Henry Clay
    John C. Calhoun
    Thomas Jefferson
    Frederick Douglass
    5. Which statement best explains how the conflict over the Tariff of 1828 was resolved? (1 point)
    The U.S. Supreme Court ruled against the tariff.
    Daniel Webster gave a speech to the Senate and the tariff was repealed.
    South Carolina passed the Nullification Act, which canceled the tariff outright.
    Henry Clay proposed a compromise tariff that eventually eased tensions.
    6. How did John Calhoun react to the Tariff of 1828? (1 point)
    He used his power as vice president to influence President Jackson to oppose the tariff.
    He led a charge to impose stricter regulations on the Second Bank of the United States.
    He devised a Force Bill allowing the president the right to use the army to enforce the tariff.
    He claimed that states had the right to cancel any federal law deemed unconstitutional.
    A timeline of the early years of the United States shows milestones regarding the issue of states’ rights.
    In 1787, the Constitution divides power between the states and the federal government.
    In 1798, Kentucky and Virginia claim that states can nullify laws deemed unconstitutional.
    In 1814–1815, at the Hartford Convention, opponents of the War of 1812 insist that states have the right to secede.
    In 1832, South Carolina claims the right to nullify tariffs, but it backs down when President Jackson threatens to use force against it.
    Use the timeline to answer the question.
    7. Looking at the timeline, what trend can you find in the United States’ early years? (1 point)
    an increasing number of states seceding from the Union
    a gradual weakening of the federal government’s powers
    a growth in support for the federal government in the North
    a series of challenges to the power of the federal government
    A map shows the original territories of Eastern tribes, the regions of Indian Territory to which they were resettled, and the paths taken between the two during the Trail of Tears.
    The Cherokee were originally located in northern Georgia and Alabama. They walked northwest to southern Illinois and then southwest through Missouri and Arkansas Territory into northern Indian Territory.
    The Creek nation originally inhabited land just south of Cherokee territory. They walked in three groups west northwest to the Mississippi River at the southwestern corner of Tennessee, before merging and walking to north central Indian Territory.
    The Chickasaw and Choctaw originally inhabited regions in northern and central Mississippi. Both peoples travelled southwesterly into Louisiana and then northwesterly through Arkansas Territory into the southern portion of Indian Territory.
    The Seminole originally occupied central Florida. They traveled by boat to New Orleans and then followed the Mississippi into Indian Territory, where they occupied a region surrounded by the new territories of the Creek, Choctaw, and Chickasaw tribes.
    Use the map to answer the question.
    8. How does this map show the challenges faced by Native American groups on the Trail of Tears? (1 point)
    It details the areas along the trail where disease was most common.
    It shows where federal troops made a series of deadly attacks on Native American camps.
    It shows the long distances they were forced to walk to reach their designated lands.
    It details the time it took for these groups to walk from their homelands to their new territories.
    9. How did the Indian Removal Act of 1830 go against the Worcester v. Georgia ruling? (1 point)
    It extended a military campaign against Native American peoples who had farm land.
    It nullified all previous treaties that protected the interests of Georgians against Cherokees.
    It was a law banning Native American groups from owning land within the borders of any U.S. state.
    It ignored that fact that Indian lands were sovereign and not technically part of the United States.
    The completion of the Erie Canal spurred the first great westward movement of American settlers, gave access to the rich land and resources west of the Appalachians and made New York the preeminent commercial city in the United States.

    The effect of the Canal was both immediate and dramatic, and settlers poured west. The explosion of trade prophesied by Governor Clinton began, spurred by freight rates from Buffalo to New York of $10 per ton by Canal, compared with $100 per ton by road. In 1829, there were 3,640 bushels of wheat transported down the Canal from Buffalo. By 1837 this figure had increased to 500,000 bushels; four years later it reached one million. In nine years, Canal tolls more than recouped the entire cost of construction.

    Within 15 years of the Canal's opening, New York was the busiest port in America, moving tonnages greater than Boston, Baltimore and New Orleans combined.
    —New York Canals

    Use the passage to answer the question.
    10. How did the economic success of the Erie Canal impact westward expansion? (1 point)
    There was an increased demand for laborers to help build similar canals to the West.
    There was less competition in the West because it was sparsely populated compared to the East.
    The canal system eliminated many of the jobs in the East, forcing people to the West.
    There were more economic opportunities in the West due to the success of the canal system.
    11. Which of the following best describes how settlers traveled west? (1 point)
    Some settlers loaded their animals and wagons on flatboats to float down rivers.
    Many settlers traveled along with Daniel Boone across Lake Ontario to the Gateway to the West.
    Most African Americans were given their freedom so they could help clear the trails for other settlers.
    Settlers from New England traveled south to take over plantations in Georgia and Alabama.
    12. How did the invention of the steam engine affect transportation? (1 point)
    Robert Fulton’s invention of the steam-powered locomotive made travel across land much quicker.
    Henry Shreve’s modified steamboat could carry more without getting stuck on the riverbed.
    John Fitch’s steam engine made travel along the river faster, but it was more expensive.
    DeWitt Clinton’s invention was faster, but people preferred to travel along the rutted roads.
    It began as an unconnected series of trails used by American Indians. Fur Traders expanded the route to transport pelts to trading posts and rendezvous. In the 1830s missionaries followed the still faint trail along the Platte River and the Snake to establish church connections in the Northwest. A combination of economic and political events in the 1840s converged to start a large scale migration west on what was then known as "The Oregon Road." Joel Walker is credited as the first settler to make the complete trip with a family, in 1840. Large scale migration started in 1843, when a wagon train of over 800 people with 120 wagons and 5,000 cattle made the five month journey. In 1847 Mormons escaping persecution headed toward Salt Lake, and the discovery of gold in California in 1848 sent a wave of fortune seekers west. Military posts, trading posts, shortcuts, and spur roads sprang off the Oregon Trail over the next three decades.
    —Department of the Interior
    Use the passage to answer the question.
    13. Which of the following best summarizes this passage? (1 point)
    The Oregon Trail was first used by Mormons fleeing religious persecution.
    The Oregon Trail grew from small beginnings to a major migration route.
    The Oregon Trail was made more accessible by missionaries who helped define the route.
    The Oregon Trail was developed by the military to monitor interactions between Native American groups and settlers.
    14. Which of the following accurately portrays what life was like for pioneers traveling west? (1 point)
    Entire families rarely traveled together because it was too dangerous for the children.
    Travel across the land was preferred over river travel because of the need to bring wagons.
    Pioneers carried all their possessions on long and dangerous trails.
    Pioneers traveled along well-maintained trails with little difficulty.
    Total Number of Enslaved Peoples Living in the United States
    Year Number of Slaves
    1790 697,897
    1800 893,041
    1810 1,191,364
    1820 1,539,038
    1830 2,009,050
    1840 2,487,455
    1850 3,204,313
    1860 3,953,760
    Use the chart to answer the question.
    15. Based on the chart, how did westward expansion affect slavery in the United States between 1820 and 1850? (1 point)
    The slave population roughly doubled as several new slave states were admitted to the Union.
    The slave population decreased as the U.S. economy became less dependent on agriculture.
    The slave population remained roughly the same as the new states admitted to the Union were largely free.
    The slave population remained roughly the same but its percentage of the total population skyrocketed.
    An illustration shows a line of covered wagons traveling along a trail through the wilderness.
    Use the image to answer the question.
    16. What was the biggest threat of traveling west in the manner shown in the illustration? (1 point)
    Disease spread quickly because the travelers lived so close together.
    Individual wagons would oftentimes be separated from the group.
    Settlers were unable to purchase or trade for goods along the way.
    Groups faced the possibility of ambush by hostile natives.
    A map titled “Free and Slave States and Territories, 1845” shows the boundaries of states and territories and classifies them based on the legality of slavery there in 1845.
    The following states and territories were free:

    Maine
    New Hampshire
    Vermont
    Massachusetts
    Rhode Island
    Connecticut
    New York
    New Jersey
    Pennsylvania
    Ohio
    Michigan
    Indiana
    Illinois
    Wisconsin Territory
    Unorganized Territory
    Oregon Country
    Slavery was still legal in the following states and territories:

    Delaware
    Maryland
    Virginia
    North Carolina
    South Carolina
    Georgia
    Kentucky
    Tennessee
    Alabama
    Mississippi
    Missouri
    Arkansas
    Louisiana
    Florida Territory
    an unnamed territory north of the Republic of Texas covering most of present-day Oklahoma.
    Use the map to answer the question.
    17. What main reason Congress initially refused to annex Texas is supported by the information on this map? Select all that apply. (2 points)
    If the United States annexed Texas, it would almost certainly mean war with Mexico.
    If the United States annexed Texas, it would enter as a free state and anger Southerners.
    If the United States annexed Texas, slave states would almost certainly outnumber free states.
    If the United States annexed Texas, it would jeopardize the country’s other claims in California.
    18. Which of the following was one cause of the Mexican-American War? (1 point)
    The United States annexed Texas.
    Mormons moved into Mexican territory.
    President Polk purchased Texas.
    Mexico offered to sell California.
    Population of San Francisco, 1848–1870
    Date Population
    April 1848 850
    July 1849 5,000
    December 1849 25,000
    1850 21,000
    1852 36,151
    1860 56,802
    1870 149,473
    Use the chart to answer the question.
    19. Using the information on the chart, what can you infer about the Gold Rush’s impact on the city of San Francisco? (1 point)
    San Francisco’s population grew by a greater percentage after 1860 than during the Gold Rush.
    The Gold Rush was a short-lived trend that had little lasting impact on San Francisco.
    Once the forty-niners tried their luck in San Francisco they left the city and moved back home.
    The mass migration of forty-niners transformed San Francisco into an economic hub practically overnight.
    20. Which of the following was a result of the U.S.-Mexican War? (1 point)
    It united Americans against a common enemy.
    It gained the respect of European nations for America’s military power.
    It enabled the United States to annex Texas.
    It gave the United States territory known as the Mexican Cession.
    "I shall never surrender or retreat…I call on you in the name of Liberty, of patriotism and everything dear to the American character, to come to our aid, with all [speed]…"
    ----William B. Travis

    Use the passage to answer the question.
    21. How did this message and the events at the Alamo affect Texans? Select all that apply. (2 points)
    It discouraged Texans who realized the battle had been lost.
    It encouraged Texans to plead with the United States for support.
    It reminded Texans that enslaved people would want freedom as well
    It inspired Texans to fight the Mexicans for their independence.
    22. Which description best depicts the experiences of Native Americans working on California missions?

    (1 point)
    They experienced beneficial cultural exchange.
    They were overworked and mistreated.
    They achieved strides towards suffrage.
    They volunteered to fight for Mexico.
    23. Explain how transportation innovations of the time period affected migration patterns in the United States. (4 points)

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