How does the idea of magnetic fields arising from circulating currents relate to permanent magnets?

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  1. Electrons have an intrinsic angular momentum, which is called spin. It is as if a electron is a rotating ball of electric charge. The directon of the spin is what the rotation axis would be.

    In a permanent magnet some fraction of the electron spins are alligned. This is like having a lot of circular currents that are all generating magnetic fields in the same direction.

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