In a buffer solution, if [Aƒ{] < [HA], which of the following must be true?
a. pH < pKa
b. pH = pKa
c. pH > pKa
d. pH < 7.00
e. pH > 7.00

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  1. Here is the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.
    pH = pKa + log [(base)/(acid)].
    base is A
    acid is HA
    If base < acid, the fraction must be less than 1, the log of a number less than 1 is negative; therefore, pH must be .....than pKa.

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