Your question is a bit one-sided. Historians today are still arguing about whether Reconstruction was a failure. Reconstruction certainly had its bad sides as well as ending peacefully with the Southern states fully reuniting with the Union in a period of about 12 years from 1865 until 1877.
Nevertheless I will attempt to give you the side that you wanted and neglect the other side for now.
Lincoln's death had a proofing effect upon Reconstruction even though on the face of it Johnson's plan was very similar. The problem was that Andrew Johnson was not a Lincoln. Johnson did not have a college education. In fact he did not learn to read until he was older. He was a southerner and a former slave owner. It is generally believed that Lincoln could control the Radical Republicans while Johnson could not. Johnson began his term of President after Lincoln was assassinated and he was already hated by the Radical Republicans. Southern states passed laws that were known as the Black Codes. These laws provided among other things that the penalty for interracial marriage was death, Blacks could not testify in court against whites, that Blacks could only live in certain areas. Even hough Johnson attempted to stop all federal laws assisting the blacks they were overridden by Congress since the Southern states had no votes in Congress.
"Although Reconstruction did protect some of the political and
civil rights of the Afro-American community, it achieved almost
nothing in improving the social and economic situation. The
concept of social and economic rights was almost nonexistent a
century ago. Political rights, however, without economic security
could be a mere abstraction. Meaningful freedom had to be more
than the freedom to starve. This meant that the ex-slave needed
land, tools, and training to provide him with an economic base
that would make his freedom real. The ex-slave had limited
education, limited experience, a servile slave attitude, and he
was in need of social and economic training to compensate for the
years of slavery. Without this he could not enter a competitive
society as an equal. Emancipation was not enough."
"Reconstruction failed. Even though Reconstruction failed, at least we tried but
some people have to learn how to change. Reconstruction changed the way of life
for blacks. Some changes were good and some changes made life difficult, but
overall the blacks made it out of slavery safely. Reconstruction was the
original beginning of the Civil Rights Act. The fact that African-Americans had
made it so far gave them the strength to keep going and fight for what they
believe in." Source http://www.thehistoryconnection.com/Reconstruction-Failure.html
Between 1850 and 1860 several events occurred in the U.S. that highlighted the struggle over slavery. Describe these events and state what finally led to secession of the South beginning in December of 1860.
What impact did the collapse of the Napoleonic Empire have on Europe? The collapse of Napoleon's empire promoted international trade and led to the rise of the European Union The fall of Napoleon and the spread of ideas from the
Here is the questions that I had to answer: What social, political, and economic changes pulled the North and the South further apart? What was the final determining factor that led to Southern secession? Here is how I answered