statistics

A research article included the following table:
Mean Score on Four Questionnarie Scales Before and After the Experimental Manipulation.

Questionnaire Before After Change
Dominance 18.42 16.31 -2.11
Independence 17.25 21.38 4.13**
Conformity 18.97 17.20 -1.77*
Nurturance 16.11 13.89 -2.22*
_________________________
* p<.05 **p<.01

Which of the following is most likely to be true given the information on this table? (Points :1)
The hypothesis testing probably used one-tailed test.
The various scales all probably had just about the same population variances
The t scores are all larger than the raw change scores.
The hypothesis testing probably used a t test for dependent means.

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  1. It is not a one-tailed test, because significance is found in both directions.
    There is no data about variation or t scores given.
    What is left?

    Do you think that independence and conformity might be related (dependent)?
    Do you think that dominance and nurturance might be related?

    I hope this helps.

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