statistics

A researcher is interested in determining whether acupuncture affects pain tolerance. An experiment is performed in which 15 students are randomly chosen from a large pool of university undergraduate volunteers. Each subject serves in two conditions. In both conditions, each subject receives a short-duration electric shock to the pulp of a tooth. The shock intensity is set to produce a moderate level of pain to the anaesthetized subject. After the shock is terminated, each subject rates the perceived level of pain on a scale of 0–10, with 10 being the highest level. In the experimental condition, each subject receives the appropriate acupuncture treatment prior to receiving the shock. The control condition is made as similar to the experimental condition as possible, except a placebo treatment is given instead of acupuncture. The two conditions are run on separate days at the same time of day. The pain ratings in the accompanying table are obtained.
a. What is the null hypothesis?
b. Using = 0.052 tail, what is your conclusion?
c. What error might you be making by your conclusion in part c?
d. To what population does your conclusion apply?
Subject Acupuncture Placebo
1 4 6
2 2 5
3 1 5
4 5 3
5 3 6
6 2 4
7 3 7
8 2 6
9 1 8
10 4 3
11 3 7
12 4 8
13 5 3
14 2 5
15 1 4

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