Statistics
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Use the following table to answer questions 7 and 8:
This table displays results from a prospective cohort study evaluating meat intake and mortality. The table displays hazard ratios for mortality by quintile of red meat intake.
Table 2. Multivariate Analysis for Red, White, and Processed Meat Intake and Total and CauseSpecific Mortality in Men in the National Institutes of HealthAARP Diet and Health Studya
Quintile
Mortality in Men (n=322263) Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 P Value for Trend
Red Meat Intakeb
All mortality
Deaths 6437 7835 9366 10988 13350
Basic modelc 1 [Ref.] 1.07 (1.031.10) 1.17 (1.131.21) 1.27 (1.231.31) 1.48 (1.431.52) <.001
Adjusted modeld 1 [Ref.] 1.06 (1.031.10) 1.14 (1.101.18) 1.21 (1.171.25) 1.31 (1.271.35) <.001
Cancer mortality
Deaths 2136 2701 3309 3839 4448
Basic modelc 1 [Ref.] 1.10 (1.041.17) 1.23 (1.161.29) 1.31 (1.241.39) 1.44 (1.371.52) <.001
Adjusted modeld 1 [Ref.] 1.05 (0.991.11) 1.13 (1.071.20) 1.18 (1.121.25) 1.22 (1.161.29) <.001
CVD mortality
Deaths 1997 2304 2703 3256 3961
Basic modelc 1 [Ref.] 1.02 (0.961.08) 1.10 (1.041.17) 1.24 (1.171.31) 1.44 (1.371.52) <.001
Adjusted modeld 1 [Ref.] 0.99 (0.961.09) 1.08 (1.021.15) 1.18 (1.121.26) 1.27 (1.201.35) <.001
Mortality from injuries and sudden deaths
Deaths 184 216 228 280 343
Basic modelc 1 [Ref.] 1.02 (0.841.24) 0.97 (0.801.18) 1.09 (0.901.31) 1.24 (1.031.49) .01
Adjusted modeld 1 [Ref.] 1.06 (0.861.29) 1.01 (0.831.24) 1.14 (0.941.39) 1.26 (1.041.54) .008
All other deaths
Deaths 1268 1636 1971 2239 2962
Basic modelc 1 [Ref.] 1.13 (1.051.22) 1.25 (1.171.35) 1.33 (1.241.42) 1.68 (1.571.80) <.001
Adjusted modeld 1 [Ref.] 1.17 (1.091.26) 1.28 (1.191.38) 1.34 (1.251.44) 1.58 (1.471.70) <.001
a: Data are given as hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) unless otherwise specified.
b: Median red meat intake based on men and women (g/1000 kcal): Q1, 9.8; Q2, 21.4; Q3, 31.3; Q4, 42.8; and Q5, 62.5.
c: Basic model: age(continuous); race (nonHispanic white, nonHispanic black, Hispanic/Asian/Pacific Islander/American Indian/Alaskan native, or unknown); and total energy intake (continous).
d: Adjusted model: basic model plus education (<8 years or unknown, 811 years, 12 years [high school], some college, or college graduate); marital status (married: yes/no); family history of cancer (yes/no) (cancer mortality only); body mass index (18.5 to <25, 25 to <30, 30 to <35, ≥35 [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]); 31level; smoking history using smoking status (never, former, current), time since quitting for former smokers, and smoking dose; frequency of vigorous physical activity (never/rarely, 13 times/mo, 12 times/wk, 34 times/wk, ≥5 times/wk); alcohol intake (none, 0 to <5, 5 to <15, 15 to <30, ≥40 servings/1000 kcal, vitamin supplement user (≥1 supplement/mo); fruit consumption (0 to <0.7, 0.7 to <1.2, 1.2 to <1.7, 1.7 to <2.5, ≥2.5 servings/1000kcal); and vegetable consumption (0 to <1.3, 1.3 to <1.8, 1.8 to <2.2, 2.2 to <3.0, ≥3.0 serving/1000 kcal).
Reproduced with permission from: Sinha R, Cross AJ, Graubard BI, Leitzmann MF, Schatzkin A. Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people. Arch Intern Med 2009;169:56271.
QUESTION 7
7. What statistical method was used to calculate the Hazard Ratios given in the table?
Linear regression Poisson regression Cox regression Logistic regression Multiple 2x2 tables
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