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I'm not sure how to do this.

Determine the actual ratio of 18O:16O for the following substances.

a) Snow falling in Greenland at a temperature of -20 degrees C
b) Water vapor in equilibrium with VSMOW
c) Pore-water from sediments in the North Atlantic corresponding to the last glacial maximum

You need more information that I have given you, but if you could show me how to solve the problem(s) I would appreciate it. Thanks!

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