biology help!!

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1. Which process involves both passive and active transport?
a.)facilitated diffusion<----
c.)bulk transport
d.)transport through electrogenic pumps

2. How does the liver in a healthy body respond to elevated blood sugar levels?
a.)It releases insulin.<----
b.)It stores electrolytes.
c.)It stores sugar as glycogen.
d.)It breaks down glycogen.
e.)It breaks down insulin.

3. How does an insulin injection in a person with diabetes help maintain homeostasis?
a.)by stimulating the liver to burn glycogen
b.)by stimulating the liver to release glucagon
c.)by increasing the body’s blood sugar level
d.)by triggering the body cells to take in glucose
e.)by triggering the pancreas to release glucagon<----

4. Which would be present when an animal is having a humoral or cell-mediated immune response?
a.)helper T cells
c.)cytotoxic T cells
e.)memory cells

5. How are the tobacco hornworm and monarch butterfly similar?
a.)Both release cardenolides.
b.)Both feed on toxic substances.
c.)Both sequester toxins within their bodies.
d.)Both use toxins to ward off rivals for mating.
e.)Both feed on nicotine-containing plants.<----

6. The phenomenon of autocatalysis is involved in a positive feedback loop that activates certain digestive enzymes. Which likely results when the digestive enzymes are activated?
a.)the suppression of other enzymes
b.)additional enzyme activation
c.)a chemical that blocks additional enzyme production<-----
d.)eventual inactivation of the enzymes
e.)a release of hormones that trigger satiety

7. How does nonshivering thermogenesis heat the body?
a.)by increasing cellular respiration<--
b.)by increasing the amount of brown fat an animal has
c.)by increasing the number of mitochondria in the body d.)by decreasing the rate of metabolism
e.)by decreasing ATP production

8. Which best describes the arrangement of the phospholipid bilayer?
a.)Hydrophilic heads face outward; hydrophobic tails face inward.
b.)Hydrophilic heads face inward; hydrophobic tails face outward.
c.)Hydrophobic heads face inward; hydrophilic tails face outward.<----
d.)Hydrophobic heads face outward; hydrophilic tails face inward.
e.)Hydrophobic heads alternate orientation within each layer.

9. How is carrying capacity at the population level similar to diffusion at the cellular level?
a.)They both result in a dynamic equilibrium.<----
b.)They both result in a static equilibrium.
c.)They both represent beginning phases of growth.
d.)Neither depends on biotic factors in the environment.
e.)Neither is sustainable over the long term.

10. Which statement accurately contrasts endotherms and ectotherms?
a.)Only endotherms use their own metabolism to regulate temperature.
b.)Only ectotherms use behavior to regulate temperature.
c.)Endotherms always have higher body temperatures than ectotherms.
d.)Endotherms can tolerate larger swings in internal temperatures than ectotherms.<----
e.)Ectotherms must ingest more calories than endotherms.

11. Which best describes the currently accepted structural model of the cell membrane?
a.) a fluid membrane of primarily lipids and a mosaic of carbohydrates.
b.) a dynamic membrane of geometrically arranged lipids interspersed with proteins.<----
c.) a dynamic membrane of irregularly arranged lipids and proteins.
d.) a stiff membrane of immovable proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.
e.) a stiff membrane of primarily lipids and a mosaic of proteins.

12. Which is a homeostatic benefit of estivation?
a.)conservation of moisture
b.)protection of territory<----
c.)increased metabolism
d.)increased body temperature
e.)increased pheromone production
13. What is true of apical meristem cells?
a.)They contain all the types of cells of a mature organism.
b.)They undergo gametogenesis.
c.)They contain differentiated cells.<--
d.)They only contain pluripotent cells.
e.)They are made of totipotent cells.

14. Which is true of osmoregulation in aquatic animals?
a.)Most marine invertebrates are osmoregulators.
b.)Most animals are euryhaline.
c.)Freshwater animals have lower internal osmolarities than saltwater animals.<----
d.)Freshwater animals are osmoconformers.
e.)Marine reptiles are osmoconformers.

15. Which cell structure does not function in transporting substances within the cell?
e.)low-density lipoproteins

16. What is phototropism?
a.)growth toward light<----
b.)growth in response to light
c.)seasonal variations in growth
d.)increased growth during photosynthesis
e.)flowering in response to light

17. Why are plant stomata located on the bottoms of leaves?
a.)to have greater sun exposure
b.)to have greater ventilation
c.)to conserve moisture<----
d.)to protect guard cells
e.)to utilize pooling water

18. Which process relies on the presence of a proton gradient?
a.)digestion by lysosomes
b.)digestion by peroxisomes
c.)protein assembly by ribosomes<--
d.)ATP production by mitochondria
e.)biochemical signaling by the nucleus

19. How do plants defend themselves against herbivory?
a.)with phytoalexins
b.)with specific immune responses
c.)though a hypersensitive response
d.)using defense mechanisms<----
e.)with an inflammatory response

20. All excretory systems produce nitrogenous waste. Which of the series of nitrogenous waste forms is organized from the least to most amount of energy they require to create?
a.)uric acid, urea, ammonia
b.)ammonia, urea, uric acid<----
c.)ammonia, uric acid, urea
d.)urea, ammonia, uric acid
e.)urea, uric acid, ammonia

21. What animal has a pulmocutaneous circuit?

22. Which biological process is not an example of negative feedback?
b.)blood sugar regulation
e.)stomata opening and closing

23. Why is temperature an important abiotic factor for cells?
a.)Cells regulate temperature independent of the extracellular fluid.
b.)Cold temperatures can cause proteins to denature.
c.)Cold temperatures can cause cells to shrivel.
d.)Temperature affects membrane fluidity.<----
e.)Hot temperatures can cause cells to burst.

24. How are water and air different as respiratory mediums?
a.)Water requires an open circulatory system, while air doesn’t.
b.)Ventilation requires less energy in water than air.
c.)Water can require countercurrent exchange, but air doesn’t.
d.)Water has a variable oxygen content, while air has a constant oxygen content.
e.)Gas exchange occurs more readily in water than air.<-----

Thanks in Advance.

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