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1.Which of the following principles is not part of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection? Individuals with the most favorable traits have the best chance of reproducing.
More individuals are born than will be able to survive.
Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variation. ~~~
The individuals that survive and reproduce pass on favorable traits.

2.Most evolutionary factors have an increased chance of influencing gene frequencies in small populations than large populations, but which of the following factors most consistently requires a small population as a precondition for its occurrence?
genetic drift
gene flow
natural selection ~~~

3.Which of the following is the best explanation for the fact that a population of penguins in Antarctica cannot fly even though there is evidence that millions of years ago their ancestors were able to fly?
Ancestral penguins with shorter wings were better swimmers for catching food and evading predators; they passed the genes for smaller wings on to their descendants.~~~
Ancient penguins did not use their wings for long periods of time, causing descendants to inherit smaller, weaker wings that were not suited for flight.
Antarctic penguins walk around on land and catch their food by swimming in the water, so they have no need to fly.
The cold and wind of Antarctica make flight nearly impossible, so modern-day penguins have lost the ability to fly.

5. The data table below illustrates the change that occurred in the frequency of phenotypes in an insect population over five years. What is the most probable explanation for this change over time?

Phenotype (genotype) Year 1 Year 5
Dark Brown (BB and Bb) 2500 900
Light Brown (bb) 300 3100
The adaptive value of allele b increased.
The adaptive value of allele b decreased.
The population of this insect species increased.
The population of this insect species decreased.~~~

6. In a population of mice, the presence of black spots is the result of a homozygous recessive condition. If the frequency of the allele for this condition is 0.15, what is the approximate percentage of heterozygous genotypes in this mouse population? (Assume that the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.)

7. In a population of monkeys, the allele that causes long hair at the tip of the tail (H) is dominant, while the allele that causes short hair at the tip of the tail (h) is recessive. If 67% of the monkeys have long hair at the tip of their tails, what is the frequency of the dominant allele?

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