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In a solar water heater, energy from the Sun is gathered by water that circulates through tubes in a rooftop collector. The solar radiation enters the collector through a transparent cover and warms the water in the tubes; this water is pumped into a holding tank. Assume that the efficiency of the overall system is 28.0% (that is, 72% of the incident solar energy is lost from the system). What collector area (in square meters) is necessary to raise the temperature of 450 L of water in the tank from 18°C to 50°C in 2.8 h when the intensity of incident sunlight is 520 W/m2? The specific heat of water is 4186 J/kg·K. The density of water is 1.00 g/cm3.

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