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chemistry

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What is the effect of the following on the separation of the mixture(hexane and toluene)?
a. A soluble, nonvolatile impurity
b. a decrease in barometric pressure
c. an increase in barometric pressure
d. rapid heating rate

  • chemistry -

    I take we are talking about fractional distillation.

    a. In terms of the separation a small amount of a soluble nonvolatile impurity will have no effect. There will be a small increase in each of the boiling points, which are already well separated.

    b. A decrease in the barometric pressure will bring the boiling points closer together and thus more theoretical plates are needed to achieve separation. Or, if you like with the same apparatus, a poorer separation.

    c. An increase in barometric pressure will increase the separation of the boiling points, so less theoretical plates needed. Or, if you like with the same apparatus, a better separation.

    d. Not quite sure what is meant by this. Is the implication that the vapour is not at equilibrium?

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