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What were the main conflicts between Native Americans and the US government during the time of westward expansion?
I need a list of the various clashes between our government and the Native Americans roughly around the time of 1860-1910....i've found a couple lists, but they don't usually match up for some reason--and i would very much prefer not to have this in the wrong order for my paper! Thank you!

  • History -

    Have you seen all these links?


    I have many sites for Native Americans and I'll look through them as well.


  • History -

    Here are the best sites I can find that may provide what you are looking for:

    1. (backgrouns): http://www.victoriana.com/history/nativeamericans.html

    2. (some valid dates for your time-period): http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_many_Native_Americans_were_killed_by_the_US_government

    3. (Under American Indian Wars/alittle hard to read but per area):

    Wars of the West timeline

    Great Plains

    * Arikara War (1823)
    * Comanche Wars (1836–1875) against the Comanche on the southern plains, primarily in theTexas Republic and the state.
    o Lake Trinidad, Texas (May 9, 1854): 1st Lt George B. Crosby of 5th US Cavalry severely wounded in combat with Indians.
    o Devil's River, Texas (July 20, 1857): 1st Lt. John Bell Hood of 5th US Cavalry severely wounded in combat with Lipans and Commanches at head-waters of Devil River.
    o Nueces, Texas (November 8, 1857): 1st Lt James B. Witherell of the 5th US Cavalry wounded in combat with Indians 70 miles northeast of the Nueces.
    o Small River, C.N. (May 13, 1859): 1st Lt. Fitzhugh Lee of the 5th US Cavalry severely wounded in combat with Indians at Small Creek near Fort Atkinson C.N.
    * First Regiment of Dragoons: Skirmishes with Indians 1837 to 1849.
    o In October 1837, and again in March 1838, Colonel Stephen W. Kearny led elements of the regiment to quell Osage Indians.
    o April 1839, Fort Wayne established in Indian Territory. Companies E, F, G and K, were there for several years, making occasional forays into the field to chase hostile Indians.
    o June 26, 1847, Kansas, Company B marching to Albuquerque, N. M. from Fort Levenworth, was engaged while en route with Comanche Indians losing five men killed and six wounded.
    o 1849 skirmishes with Indians in Nebraska and New Mexico.
    * Wyoming Campaign (1855) of the punitive force of Colonel William S. Harney against the Brulé Sioux. Battle of Ash Hollow, Nebraska.
    * 1857 Cheyenne Expedition of Col. E. V. Sumner against the Cheyenne, Battle of Solomon's Fork.
    * Dakota War of 1862: skirmishes in the southwestern quadrant of Minnesota result in hundreds dead. In the largest mass execution in U.S. history, 38 Dakota were hanged. About 1,600 others were sent to a reservation in present-day South Dakota. Col. Henry Hastings Sibley pursued the Sioux into Dakota Territory in 1863 where fighting continued until 1864.
    * Colorado War (1864–1865): clashes centered on the Colorado Eastern Plains, primarily between settlers and groups of Cheyenne and Arapaho.
    o Sand Creek Massacre (1864): Colorado Territory militia led by John Chivington attacked a peaceful village, killing and mutilating about 200 Cheyenne and Arapaho, two-thirds of whom were women and children.
    * Powder River Expedition of 1865,or Connor Expedition. Led by Brigadier General Patrick E. Connor, it was a punitive campaign against the Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho for raiding along the Bozeman Trail.
    * Red Cloud's War (1866–1868): Lakota chief Makhpyia Luta (Red Cloud) conducts the most successful attacks against the U.S. Army during the Indian Wars. By the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868), the U.S. granted a large reservation to the Lakota, without military presence or oversight, no settlements, and no reserved road building rights. The reservation included the entire Black Hills.
    * Comanche Campaign (1867–1875): Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan, in command of the Department of the Missouri, instituted winter campaigning in 1868–69 as a means of rooting out the elusive Indian tribes scattered throughout the border regions of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, and Texas.
    o Fort Wallace, Kansas (June, 26th, 1867): Sgt Frederick Wyllyams of Co G, 7th U.S. Cavalry killed by Indians.
    o Kidder massacre {June 29, 1867): Lakota/Cheyenne: Lt Kidder; 10 enlisted men {2nd US Cavalry} and 1 Indian Guide are killed.
    o See Fifth Military District {Texas} for reports of US Cavalry vs. Native Americans from August 1867 to September 1869. (US Cavalry units in Texas were the 4th Cavalry Regiment (United States); 6th Cavalry Regiment (United States) and the 9th Cavalry Regiment (United States)).
    o Battle of Beecher Island (1868): northern Cheyenne under war leader Roman Nose fought scouts of the U.S. 9th Cavalry Regiment in a nine-day battle.
    o Buff Creek, Kansas (October, 2, 1868): Walter Johnson of Co E, 7th U.S. Cavalry killed by Indians.
    o Battle of Washita River (1868): George Armstrong Custer's 7th U.S. Cavalry attacked Black Kettle's Cheyenne village on the Washita River (near present day Cheyenne, Oklahoma). Estimates range from 13 to 150 men, women and children killed.
    o Battle of Summit Springs (1869) Cheyenne Dog Soldiers led by Tall Bull defeated by elements of U.S. Army under command of Colonel Eugene A. Carr. Tall Bull died, reportedly killed by Buffalo Bill Cody.
    o Battle of Palo Duro Canyon (September 28, 1874): Cheyenne, Comanche, and Kiowa warriors engaged elements of the U.S. 4th Cavalry Regiment led by Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie.

    * 1871 Yellowstone Expedition under Col. Whistler.
    * 1872 Yellowstone Expedition under Col. David S. Stanley.
    * 1873 Yellowstone Expedition a second expedition under Col. Stanley up the Yellowstone River as far as Pompey's Pillar.
    o Battle of Honsinger Bluff (1873): skirmish between Lakota under Rain-in-the-Face and the 7th Cavalry under George Armstrong Custer. {Two Civilians and 1 soldier killed/1 soldier and 2 horses wounded}
    * Red River War (1874–1875): between Comanche and U.S. forces under the command of William Sherman and Lt. General Phillip Sheridan.
    * Great Sioux War of 1876–77: Lakota under Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse fought the U.S. after repeated violations of the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868).
    o Battle of Powder River(1876): Cheyanne under Little Wolf clash with U.S.Army and Shoshone and Crow Allies.
    o Battle of the Rosebud (1876): Lakota under Tasunka witko clashed with U.S. Army column moving to reinforce Custer's 7th Cavalry.
    o Battle of the Little Bighorn (1876): Sioux and Cheyenne under the leadership of Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse defeated the 7th Cavalry under George Armstrong Custer.
    * Cheyenne Campaign or Cheyenne War (1878–1879): a conflict between the United States' armed forces and a small group of Cheyenne families.
    * Pine Ridge Campaign (November 1890 – January 1891): numerous unresolved grievances led to the last major conflict with the Sioux. A lopsided engagement that involved almost half the infantry and cavalry of the Regular Army caused the surviving warriors to lay down their arms and retreat to their reservations in January 1891.
    o Wounded Knee Massacre (December 29, 1890): Sitting Bull's half-brother, Big Foot, and 152 other Sioux were killed; 25 U.S. cavalrymen also died in the engagement. 7th Cavalry Only fourteen days before, Sitting Bull had been killed with his son Crow Foot at Standing Rock Agency in a gun battle with a group of Indian police that had been sent by the American government to arrest him.


    * First Regiment of Dragoons in New Mexico Territory:
    o Skirmishes with Indians (1849–1851).
    o (1851) Edwin Vose Sumner establishes Fort Defiance in the middle of Navajo land.
    o Battle of Cieneguilla (March 30, 1854), Lieutenant J. W. Davidson, with reinforced Company I had a fight with Jicarilla Apache about 16 miles south of Taos, and barely avoided annihillation. Lieutenant Colonel Philip St. George Cooke at once organized an expedition to pursue the Jicarilla, caught and defeated them April 4, at the canyon of Ojo Caliente.
    o (1854) Lt. Colonel Daniel T. Chandler's campaign against the Mescalero Apaches.
    o (July 1854), Regimental headquarters transferred to Fort Union, New Mexico Territory.
    o (1855), Colonel Thomas T. Fauntleroy made three expeditions against the Utes and Apaches, and Companies I and K went with Colonel Nelson A. Miles against the Mescalero Apaches.
    o Chandler's Expedition (March and April, 1856), against the Navajos and Apaches.
    * Gila Expedition of 1857, New Mexico Territory, April 16, to September 16, 1857.
    * Navajo Expedition, New Mexico Territory, September 9, to December 25, 1858
    * Colorado River Expedition (1858–1859), a column under Lieutenant Colonel William Hoffman imposed peace on the Mohave leaving Captain Lewis Addison Armistead to garrison Fort Mojave and enforce the peace.
    * Navajo Wars (1861–1864): ended with Long Walk of the Navajo—Arizona Territory and New Mexico Territory.
    * Hualapai or Walapais War (1864–1869): Arizona Territory.
    * Apache Wars or Apache Campaigns (1861–1886) Careleton put the Mescelero on a reservation with the Navajos at Fort Sumner and it continued until 1886, when Geronimo surrendered.
    o Tonto Creek, Arizona (June 16, 1873): Captain John B Babcock of the US 5th Cavalry slightly wounded in combat with Indians 7 miles north east of the forks of the Tonto River.
    o Sunset Pass, Arizona (November 1, 1874): Captain Charles King of the 5th US Cavalry severely wounded in combat with Indians at Sunset Pass 18 miles from Little Colorado River Arizona.
    o Alma, New Mexico (December 19, 1885}: An officer and 4 enlisted men of the 8th US Cavalry were killed by Apaches near Alma, New Mexico.

    Pacific Northwest–Great Basin

    * Tonquin incident (1811), Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia.
    * Cayuse War (1848–1855): Oregon Territory–Washington Territory.
    * Ward Massacre August 20, 1854
    * Puget Sound War (1855–1856): Washington Territory.
    * Winnas Expedition against the Winnas or Snake Indians, Oregon, May 24, to September 8, 1855.
    * Rogue River Wars (1855–1856): Oregon Territory.
    * Yakima War (1855–1858): Washington Territory.
    o Spokane–Coeur d'Alene–Paloos War (1858): Washington and Idaho (often seen as the last stage of the Yakima War).
    * The Fraser Canyon War (1858) in the Colony of British Columbia involved American irregular militias; violence along the Okanagan Trail to the Fraser goldfields is associated with the Yakima War. For other wars in the non-US parts of the Pacific Northwest, please see Wars of the indigenous peoples of North America.
    * Wallen Wagon Road Expedition June 4 – October 17, 1859
    * Steen's Expedition 1860
    * Grier's Expedition 1860
    * Salmon Falls Massacre, or Myers Massacre, September 13, 1860
    * Paiute War in 1860.
    * Expedition against the Snake Indians in Idaho 1862 August 19 – Oct. 11, 1862.
    * Expedition to the Snake Indian Country May 4 – Oct. 26,1863.
    * Expedition from Fort Lapwai, to The Meadows Aug. 22 – Sept. 20, 1863.
    * Snake War 1864–1868, against the Snake Indians in the states of Oregon, Nevada, and California, and in Idaho Territory, little known but the deadliest of the Indian Wars in the West.
    * Nez Perce War or Nez Perce Campaign (1877): Nez Perce under Chief Joseph retreated from the 1st U.S. Cavalry through Idaho, Yellowstone Park, and Montana after a group of Nez Perce attacked and killed a group of American settlers in early 1877.
    * Bannock War or Bannock Campaign (1878): elements of the 21st U.S. Infantry, 4th U.S. Artillery, and 1st U.S. Cavalry engaged the natives of southern Idaho including the Bannock and Paiute when the tribes threatened rebellion in 1878, dissatisfied with their land allotments.
    * Sheepeater War or Sheepeater Campaign (May – August 1879): on May 1, 1879, three detachments of soldiers pursued the Idaho Western Shoshone throughout central Idaho during the last campaign in the Pacific Northwest.
    * Ute War or Ute Campaign (September 1879 – November 1880): on September 29, 1879, some 200 men, elements of the 4th U.S. Infantry and 3rd U.S. Cavalry and 5th U.S. Cavalry under the command of Maj. T. T. Thornburgh, were attacked and besieged in Red Canyon by 300 to 400 Ute warriors. Thornburgh's group was rescued by forces of the 5th and U.S. 9th Cavalry Regiment in early October, but not before significant loss of life had occurred – aftermath of Meeker Massacre. The Utes were finally pacified in November 1880.


    * Act for the Government and Protection of Indians, April 22, 1850.[33] Passed by the legislature of California, it allowed settlers to continue to the Californio practice of capturing and using Native people as bonded workers. It also provided the basis for the enslavement and trafficking in Native American labor, particularly that of young women and children, which was carried on as a legal business enterprise. Raids on villages were made to supply the demand, the young women and children were carried off to be sold, the men and remaining people often being killed. This practice did much to destroy Native tribes during the California Gold Rush.
    * Pitt River Expedition, April 28, to September 13, 1850.
    * Bloody Island Massacre (1850), 200 Pomo people killed by a U. S. Army detachment under Nathaniel Lyon, on an island near Upper Lake, California. This in retaliation for the killing of two Clear Lake settlers who had been enslaving and murdering the Pomo.
    * Mariposa War 1850–1851, against the Yosemites and Chowchillas.
    * Garra Revolt 1851, by Cahuilla and Cupeño near Warner's Ranch, led by Antonio Garra tried to unite all of the tribes of Southern California to drive out the Americans.
    * Yuma War 1851–1852, triggered by the Glanton Gang's abuse of the Yuma on the lower Colorado River. After the failure of California's 1850 Gila Expedition to quell the rising Federal troops under Major Samuel P. Heintzelman, led Federal troops against the Yuma in the Yuma Expedition, establishing Fort Yuma and making a peace with the Yuma in October 1852.
    * Kaibai Creek Massacre, August 17, 1854. 42 Winnemem Wintu men, women and children are killed by white settlers at Kaibai Creek, California.
    * Red Cap War 1855, against Yuroks and Karuks.
    o Klamath River Massacres (January 22, 1855). Whites in Humboldt County, California, commenced a "war of extermination against the Indians", in retaliation for the murder of six settlers and the theft of some cattle.
    * Tule River War of 1856 against the Yokut in the southern San Joaquin Valley.
    * Pitt River Expedition 1857
    * California Indian Wars (1858–65): against the Tolowa, Nomlaki, Chimariko, Wintun and others living in the Sacramento River Valley to the Coast Range.
    o Pitt River Expedition 1859
    * Bald Hills War (1858–1864) against the Hupa, Karuk, Tsnungwe, Wiyot, Whilkut and Yurok.
    o 1860 Wiyot Massacre
    * Mendocino War 1859 against the Yuki.
    * In 1860 Major James Henry Carleton, with reinforced First Regiment of Dragoons, Company K, attacked suspected Paiute raiders along the Mojave Road.
    * August 3–12, 1861. Scout from Fort Crook to Round Valley, in Mendocino County
    o August 6, Skirmish in the Upper Pit River Valley.
    * August 15–22, 1861. Expedition from Fort Crook to the Pit River
    o August 19. Skirmish near Kellogg's Lake, Cal.
    * Owens Valley Indian War (1861–1864) [41] War against the Owens Valley Paiutes or Numa and their allies among the Kawaiisu.
    o Keyesville Massacre (April 19, 1863)
    * Modoc War, or Modoc Campaign (1872–1873): 53 Modoc warriors under Captain Jack held off 1,000 men of the U.S. Army for 7 months. Major General Edward Canby was killed during a peace conference.

    Last battles (1898; 1918)
    Oscar Burkard

    * October 5, 1898, Leech Lake, Minnesota: Battle of Sugar Point. Last Medal of Honor given for Indian Wars Campaigns was awarded to Pvt. Oscar Burkard of 3rd U.S. Infantry Regiment.
    * January 9, 1918: The Battle of Bear Valley occurred in Southern Arizona. U.S. forces of the U.S. 10th Cavalry engaged and captured a band of Yaquis, after a brief firefight.


  • History -

    Here is the Website for reference:


    Plus, don't miss the references clear at the bottom.


  • History -

    wow! Thank you! That was really REALLY helpful! THANKS!

  • History -

    a lot died

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