Kaplan university

posted by .

describe how something is learned using classical conditioning. Be sure to identify the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned stimulus, the unconditioned response, and the conditioned response. For the second example you will use the theory of operant conditioning. For your third example you will use observational learning. Be sure to identify in your example the Schedules of Reinforcement.

  • Psychology? Education?? -

    What kind of HELP do you need? You need to be specific when asking questions here.

    If all you do is post your entire assignment, nothing will happen since no one here will do your work for you. But if you are specific about what you don't understand about the assignment or exactly what help you need, someone might be able to assist you.

  • Kaplan university -

    Could you please help me by rephrasing what it is asking me to do? Thank you.

  • Kaplan university -

    Possibly this information will give you a start.

    Classical conditioning is characterized by several factors.

    I. The key relationship is associating antecedent events.

    II. It originates with reflexive behavior. The behavior is "built in."

    III. Classical conditioning is essentially a process of stimulus substitution. The response essentially remains the same.

    IV. The response is elicited, since the behavior is reflexive.

    Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning was started by Skinner and his box. In contrast to classical conditioning, operant conditioning has some specific qualities.

    I. Consequences to responses are the key relationship.

    II. Emitted responses are voluntary rather than reflexive.

    III. Response substitution occurs -- unreinforced responses go to extinction, while reinforced responses become stronger. Essentially operant conditioning is response contingent reinforcement.

    In classical conditioning, the unconditoned stimulus (US) is one which reflexively causes a response. One example is putting something into your mouth causes salivation. In this case the unconditioned response (UR) is the response to a US presented alone, the salivation.

    A conditioned stimulus (CS) originally has little or no effect. Only when the CS is repeatedly paired with a US (or previously learned CS) will it become a CS. A good example is the sound of a cellophane wrapper being opened. Originally it has little or no effect. However, after being repeatedly paired with eating candy or other foods, it alone will produce the conditioned response. The conditioned response (CR) is one given to the CS when presented alone.

    Reinforcement has different effects depending on the schedule of reinforcement.

    I. Continuous (100%) reinforcement (Q student, p. 294) means that the organism is reinforced for every desired response. This schedule provides quickest learning, but it is the quickest to go to extinction

    II. Partial reinforcement is slower to learn, but it takes longer to go to extinction.


    A. Fixed Ratio (FR) involves reinforcing (SR) in a direct ratio to number of responses (Rs), but not every R. It leads to a high R rate (piecework, commission examples).

    B. Fixed Interval (FI) involves SR at end of specified period for a minimum R. Regardless of how many Rs give over minimum, only gets same SR at the end of interval. Typically has lower initial R rate but high R rate near the end of each interval. It involves a known deadline (term paper, exams, Xmas examples).

    C. Random, variable interval (VI) or variable ratio (VR) involve receiving SR at unpredictable times. Although the experimenter may be using either VI or VR, to the subject it appears to be random. Although organism cannot predict when SR will come, expects it to come. This leads to high R rate and 1:210 ratio between learning trials and extinction. (Compare with instructor's "x" responses.) (discipline, tantrum, gambling, superstition, "shark god," baseball examples).

Respond to this Question

First Name
School Subject
Your Answer

Similar Questions

  1. social studies

    Present a cognent argument based on your critical analysis of the question posed, using appropriate psychological terminology: Imagine that you are a psychology student in a college introductory psychology class. Design an experiment …
  2. Psychology

    1) When you hear that someone has been conditioned, what is being expressed is that he/she is doing something a. compulsively b. obsessively c. by over-learning information d. by habit or almost automatically My answer was c but this …
  3. Psychology

    1) In general, what is learned in classical conditioning ( and what you should try to remember about classical conditioning) is a. to emit an operant b. to give a reflex to a previously neutral stimulus c. to give an unconditioned …
  4. Psychology

    Advertisers have been using the principles of classical conditioning for years in attempt to associate pleasant feelings with their products. Beer ads are particularly famous for doing so by placing scantily clothed women holding beer …
  5. psychology

    Advertisers have been using the principles of classical conditioning for years in attempts to associate pleasant feelings with their products. One particular genre of ads (for beer) is particularly famous for doing so by placing scantily …
  6. Psychology

    In Pavlov's classical conditioning experiments, the neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned reponse is known as the: A) unconditioned stimulus B) conditioned stimulus C) reinforced stimulus D) unreinforced stimulus I believe …
  7. psychology

    In Pavlov's classical conditioning experiments, the neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned reponse is known as the: A) unconditioned stimulus B) conditioned stimulus C) reinforced stimulus D) unreinforced stimulus I believe …
  8. Introduction to Psychology

    After the day of the wreck, Yung avoided the corner of 9th and Mulberry. He knew that there was nothing wrong with thatparticular location, but since the acident he experienced shortness of breath and tightness in his muscles when …
  9. Psychology

    Classical Conditioning. 2. Pat feels fear whenever she sees snow. Not too long ago, she got into a car accident on a snowy road. a. Name the unconditioned stimulus(US): Car accident b. Name the conditioned stimulus(CS): Seeing snow …
  10. Psychology

    A man feels anxious and a little sick to his stomach when he walked up to the front door of his old elementary school. School had been very hard for him and he remembers feeling “stupid” a lot of the time he was in school. What …

More Similar Questions