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1)If you wish to carry out a cladistic analysis of a group of species, then there are several types of information that you might find useful. Which one of the following choices describes a type of information that would be least useful in a cladistic analysis?
A) An identified outgroup which while related to the other taxa being compared lacks their synapomorphies.
B) Identification of homologies present in the groups being compared.
C) A means to absolutely date the time in the past when the groups being compared were represented by their common ancestor.
D) Knowledge that the groups being compared do consist of at least part of a monophyletic group.
E)Knowledge of the state of each characteristic to be used in the analysis for each of the groups being compared.
2) When studying the systematics of selected groups of eukaryotes, the DNA from each taxon is isolated and sequenced using typical molecular biological procedures. Which one of the following incorrectly describes an issue related to carrying out such a study?

A) A means to identify common homologies within the DNA sequences needs to be available.
B) A large enough section of DNA must be used so that similar sequences reflect a shared ancestry instead of being produced by chance.
C) The DNA that is isolated must not be contaminated by DNA from other sources.
D) A different gene must be isolated from each of the species being examined.
E) DNA that is typical for each species should be obtained, and not DNA from an extremely unusual individual.

  • Biology -

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