posted by rfvv .
1. He has bought a ring.
1-1. He bought a ring and has it now.
(#1 means #1-1, right? What about the following?)
2. You have smelled my cakes.
2-1. You smelled my cakes and you are satisfied with the smell now.
3. I haven't stolen your cakes.
3-1. I didn't steal you cakes and don't have them now.
4. I haven't touched your cakes.
4-1. I didn't touch your cakes and don't have them now.
5. I haven't stolen anything.
5-1. I didn't steal anything and don't have it now.
6. This traveler has enjoyed the smell.
6-1. This traveler enjoyed the smell and are stisfied with it now.
7. I've spent all my money on my journey.
7-1. I spent all my money on my journey and don't have any money now.
8. He has used only the smell.
8-1. He used only the smell and is satisfied with it now.
(Is each pair the same from #2 to #8? Does each sentence, containing the have/has + pp structure, have the same meaning? Would you chek them, please? Thank you.)
1 and 1-1 mean the same and are fine.
2 and 2-1 mean about the same thing, but I'd remove the words "with the smell" toward the end of 2-1.
3 and 3-1 mean about the same thing, yes.
4 and 4-1 mean the same thing.
5 and 5-1 -- hmmm. I think I'd delete "and don't have it now" from the second sentence; that phrasing implies that you know what was stolen and could be lying!!
6 is fine; 6-1 is OK, but needs corrections -- should be "is satisfied" (watch subject/verb agreement and spelling, too).
7 and 7-1 are fine.
8 and 8-1 don't make sense to me. What did he use the smell for?