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1. He has bought a ring.
1-1. He bought a ring and has it now.

(#1 means #1-1, right? What about the following?)

2. You have smelled my cakes.
2-1. You smelled my cakes and you are satisfied with the smell now.

3. I haven't stolen your cakes.
3-1. I didn't steal you cakes and don't have them now.

4. I haven't touched your cakes.
4-1. I didn't touch your cakes and don't have them now.

5. I haven't stolen anything.
5-1. I didn't steal anything and don't have it now.

6. This traveler has enjoyed the smell.
6-1. This traveler enjoyed the smell and are stisfied with it now.

7. I've spent all my money on my journey.
7-1. I spent all my money on my journey and don't have any money now.

8. He has used only the smell.
8-1. He used only the smell and is satisfied with it now.

(Is each pair the same from #2 to #8? Does each sentence, containing the have/has + pp structure, have the same meaning? Would you chek them, please? Thank you.)

  • English -

    1 and 1-1 mean the same and are fine.

    2 and 2-1 mean about the same thing, but I'd remove the words "with the smell" toward the end of 2-1.

    3 and 3-1 mean about the same thing, yes.

    4 and 4-1 mean the same thing.

    5 and 5-1 -- hmmm. I think I'd delete "and don't have it now" from the second sentence; that phrasing implies that you know what was stolen and could be lying!!

    6 is fine; 6-1 is OK, but needs corrections -- should be "is satisfied" (watch subject/verb agreement and spelling, too).

    7 and 7-1 are fine.

    8 and 8-1 don't make sense to me. What did he use the smell for?

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