For Vina, cigarettes reduce feelings of tension and anxiety. Because of her heavy smoking, however, she has a bad morning cough and breathing difficulties. How can the principles of operant conditioning help to explain the development and continuation of Vina's

8,529 results
  1. psychology

    When anxiety occurs in brief but very intense episodes that usually consist of a pounding heart, sensations of choking, shaking, and feelings of impending death, a diagnosis of ________ may potentially be made.

  2. Health

    1. Your respiratory system is the system in your body that is responsible for breathing. True False 2. The lungs are made up of thick fibrous tissue. True False 3. Internal respiration takes place in the alveoli. True False 4. The alveoli are located at

  3. Psy

    A researcher is measuring the heart rate of subjects as an index of anxiety. In this study, heart rate is 1) negatively correlated with anxiety 2) an independent variable 3) an operational definition of anxiety 4) a confounded variable i think its number 3

  4. Life orientation

    Suggest two things that one can do before writing the test or examination to reduce anxiety or stress

  5. economics

    Studies indicate that the price elasticity of demand for cigarettes is about 0.4. If a pack of cigarettes currently costs $4 and the government wants to reduce smoking by 20 per cent, by how much should it increase the price? Show your calculations. (b) If

  6. Theories and issues in working with school-age chi

    Which of the following is the most accurate statement about separation anxiety? A. Separation anxiety usually appears the age of two months. B. Separation anxiety is usually outgrown in infancy. C. Separation anxiety is an affliction that should be treated

  7. psychology

    in his research, Dr. Caulfiel wants compare levels of tests anxiety among high school students in grade 10 and 12. His hypothesis is that seniors will have higher levels of test anxiety than sophomores will. His theoretical definition of test anxiety for

  8. Statistics

    The table below shows the smoking habits of a group of asthma sufferers NS OS RS HS T M 358 32 90 48 528 W 307 35 77 44 463 T 665 67 167 92 991 If one of the 991 people is randomly selected, find the probability that the person is a man or a heavy smpker

  9. Statistics

    In one study of smokers who tried to quit smoking with nicotine patch therapy, 39 were smoking one year after the treatment, and 32 were not smoking one year after the treatment. Use a 0.10 significance level to test the claim that among the smokers who

  10. psychology

    For Vina, cigarettes reduce feelings of tension and anxiety. Because of her heavy smoking, however, she has a bad morning cough and breathing difficulties. How can the principles of operant conditioning help to explain the development and continuation of

  11. statistics

    You are conducting an experiment to see if a given therapy works to reduce test anxiety in a sample of college students. A standard measure of test anxiety is known to produce a  = 19. In the sample you draw of 86 the mean is equal 17.5 with standard

  12. math

    A new chewing gum has been developed that is helpful to those who want to stop smoking. If 60 percent of those people chewing the gum are successful in stopping smoking, what is the probability that in a group of four smokers using the gum at least one

  13. Statistics

    In 1972, there were 3.4 trillion cigarettes purchased worldwide, and in 1984, there were 4.3 trillion cigarettes purchased worldwide(in trillions) in the year x, where x=0 represents the year 1972. (a) Which of the following linear equations could be used

  14. Statistics

    The Computer Anxiety Rating Scale (CARS) measures an individual's level of computer anxiety, on a scale from 20 ( no anxiety) to 100 (highest level of anxiety). Researchers at Miami University administered CARS to 172 business students. One of the

  15. English

    1-2. My uncle decided to splurge and _____with a country club because golf is his favorite____.(affiliate,deficit) 3-4. Gail didn't ____from smoking cigarettes until her employer made not smoking ____.Keeping her job was a very good incentive to get her to

  16. statistics

    The Computer Anxiety Rating Scale (CARS) measures an individuals level of computer anxiety, on a scale from 20 (no anxiety) to 100 (highest level of anxiety). Researchers at Miami University administered CARS to 172 business students. One of the objectives

  17. Statistics

    The nicotine content in cigarettes of a certain brand is normally distributed with mean (in milligrams) μ and standard deviation σ = 0.1. The brand advertises that the mean nicotine content of their cigarettes is 1.5, but measurements on a random sample

  18. statistics

    According to the Smart magazine, 70% of smokers started smoking before the age of 18. Suppose 10 smokers are randomly selected and the number of smokers who started to smoke before the age of 18 is recorded. a) explain why this is binomial experiment. b)

  19. mathematics

    A large hotel chain is trying to decide whether to convert more of its rooms to non-smoking rooms. In a random sample of 400 guests last year, 166 had requested non-smoking rooms. This year, 205 guests in a sample of 380 preferred the non-smoking rooms.

  20. economics

    4. Consider public policy aimed at smoking. a. Studies indicate that the price elasticity of demand for cigarettes is about 0.4. If a pack of cigarettes currently costs $2 and the government wants to reduce smoking by 20 percent, by how much should it

  21. Microeconomics

    Consider public policy aimed at smoking a.) Studies indicate that the price elasticity of demand for cigarettes currently costs $2 and the government wants to reduce smoking by 20%, by how much should it increase the price? b.) If the government

  22. Algebra

    I am cramming for an examine. I can not locate one of my graded lessons with all my notes. I am trying to redo the equaitons. I am really stuck on how to simplify this one. Problem: Studies indicate that the price elasticity of demand for cigarettes is

  23. Microeconomics-Algebra Calculation

    Consider public policy aimed at smoking. Studies indicate that the price elasticity of demand for cigarettes in about 0.4. If a pack of cirarettes currently costs $2 and the government wants to reduce smoking by 20 percent, by how much should the govenment

  24. MICROECONOMICS

    In order to reduce cigarette consumption, govt initiates anti-smoking media campaigns. At the same time it provides price support program for tobacco farmers, pushing price of tobacco above equilibrium. with supply demand framework explain the effect on

  25. Theories and issues in working with school-age chi

    Which of the following is the most accurate statement about separation anxiety? A. Separation anxiety usually appears the age of two months. B. Separation anxiety is usually outgrown in infancy. C. Separation anxiety is an affliction that should be treated

  26. Economics

    Upper Slobbovians smoke 10 million cigarettes per year, so do Lower Slobbovians. To discourage smoking, each country imposes an excise tax of 50 cents per pack. As a result, the price of cigarettes rises by 35 cents in upper Slobbovia, but only by 15 cents

  27. Sociology Follow Up

    Here are some of the rationalizations I came up for smokers. I need at least 2-3 more examples. What would rationalizations be for non-smokers I'm under a lot of stress, and smoking relaxes me. Smoking makes me more effective in my work. I've already cut

  28. Health

    How can tobacco affect the circulatory system? A. Decreases heart rate B. Raises blood pressure C. Softens the arteries D. Causes ulcers How can tobacco affect the body? A. Increases appetite B. Makes teeth whiter C. Slows heart beat D. Causes nausea How

  29. Algebra Help

    It is estimated that each cigarette a person smokes shortens that person's life by the amount of time she or he took to smoke it plus ten minutes. Write an algebraic rule that determines the number of minutes (t) a person's life is shortened by smoking c

  30. Does this sound ok?

    Can anyone tell me if this sound ok? I have to create an introduction and conclusion. Below is also my thesis statement. Anything you think I can add to it or make it sound more "attention getting"? Thanks for your help :o) My Thesis statement “While a

  31. math

    Evidence of an increased risk of lung cancer associated with cigarette smoking was sought by Doll and Hill. In one study, 649 lung cancer cases were matched by age, and gender to 649 controls; 647 of the cases and 622 of the control had a history of

  32. Probability and Statistics

    Can someone tell me what formula I should use? The number of milligrams of tar in filtered and unfiltered cigarettes is being compared. The following cigarettes are pulled to be part of the samples: Filtered: bunch of data Unfiltered: bunch of data The

  33. arithmetic

    If a person smokes 20 cigarettes in a day for 58 years of their life, how many cigarettes do they smoke? If each cigarette reduces a person's life by 5 minutes, by how many days is a person's life reduced if they smoke 20 cigarettes a day for 58years of

  34. Early Childhood Education

    Parents' feelings of guilt and anxiety about placing a child in a day care program can be relieved by A. the self-evaluation process. B. the personal interview. C. filling out enrollment forms. D. receiving a deferred enrollment. A?

  35. world history

    Which of the following provides the most significant contrast to the feelings of the detained Chinese immigrants at the Angel Island Immigration Center in California? A.The feelings of the Chinese immigrants at Ellis Island. B.The feelings of the Europeans

  36. English - Native speakers

    Can you please correct these sentences(concerning grammar) We should reduce a politician salary. I hate to eat sweets because it is not good for my teeth. I am going to ban her computer games. I work only a few hours for a month. My salary is going to

  37. Mathematics

    Score on dental anxiety scale range from 0 ( no anxi) to 20 ( extreme anxiety). The scores are normally distributed with a mean of 11 and a standard deviation of 4. Find the z score for the given score on this dental anxiety scale. 16

  38. stats

    Which test do you use to solve this problem One-sample or independent samples t-test? Over the summer I asked my statistics students to report their gender and their level of statistics anxiety. Using a one-tailed test, determine whether females have more

  39. stats

    Which test do you use to solve this problem One-sample or independent samples t-test? Over the summer I asked my statistics students to report their gender and their level of statistics anxiety. Using a one-tailed test, determine whether females have more

  40. Stats

    In one study of smokers who tried to quit smoking with nicotine patch therapy, 36 were smoking after one year after the treatment, and 34 were not smoking one year after the treatment. Use a 0.10 significance level to test the claim that among smokers who

  41. Biology

    Bio question relating to the respiratory tract? Recent research has shown that cigarette smoke may result in the following: i.)Destruction of the cilia that line parts of the respiratory system ii.) Rupturing the walls of the same alveoli iii.) Thickening

  42. English

    Could someone please check my answer at the bottom and let me know if I did this correctly? If I didn't would you please give me some suggestions? I have 6 of these that I have to re-write. Thank you, Faye In this assignment, you will edit and revise

  43. health

    All of the following are true regarding smoking EXCEPT: - Smoking inhibits the T cells from working properly in the lungs - Smoking is viewed by many today as being socially unacceptable - Research shows that the nicotine patch is no no more effective than

  44. Statistics

    Smoking habit Socioeconomic status High Low Smoking 15 40 55 Not smoking 25 10 35 Total 40 50 N=90 a. For these ordinal variables, which hypothesis testing is appropriate to test the relationship between SES and smoking habits variable? b. Write the HO and

  45. psy 5 revision

    Select one theory of personality and use this theory to tell Michael how this theory explains his situation. One of the theories that I select is the Anxiety disorder. It is a serious condition that is caused by extreme and chronic anxiety which interrupts

  46. Health (Ms. Sue)

    "Cameron and Tony walked up to the counter at the convenient store. "What are you getting?" asked tony. "Nothing I'm out of cash," replied Cameron. "Didn't you have a bunch of money last week?" asked Tony. "Yeah, but I spent it on cigarettes." "Man, that

  47. English

    1. He stopped smoking. 2. He quitted smoking. Are both the same sentence? Does #1 mean that he decided not to smoke again or mean that he turned the cigarette off after smoking for some time?

  48. Medical Terminology

    The patient reports smoking three packs of cigarettes per month. She denies drug and alcohol use. This statement is an example of A. social history B. family history C. physical examination D. chief complaint

  49. Health and Physical Education

    10. Good advice for someone who is trying to quit smoking is (select all that apply) A. Tell them to eat candy instead of smoking. B. Have them hang around people who are smoking. C. tell them to throw away their ashtrays and cigarette lighters.•• D.

  50. psy 5 revised

    Select one theory of personality and use this theory to tell Michael how this theory explains his situation. One of the theories that I select is the Anxiety disorder. It is a serious condition that is caused by extreme and chronic anxiety which interrupts

  51. Research Writing

    Can anyone tell me if this sound ok? I have to create an introduction and conclusion. Below is also my thesis statement. Anything you think I can add to it or make it sound more "attention getting"? Thanks for your help :o) My Thesis statement “While a

  52. Epidemiology

    1. Evidence of an increased risk of lung cancer associated with cigarette smoking was sought by Doll and Hill. In one study, 649 lung cancer cases were matched by age, and gender to 649 controls; 647 of the cases and 622 of the control had a history of

  53. Statistics

    A manufacturer of a low-tar cigarette claims that their cigarettes contain an average of 16.3 mg of tar with a standard deviation of 3.1 mg per cigarette. How many sample cigarettes must the manufacturer observe to be 99% confident that the width of the

  54. English

    1. He stopped smoking. 2. He quit smoking. 3. He gve up smoking. [Are they the same in meaning? Which one means that he decided not to smoke from now on? Which one means that he quit smoking completely and that he will never smoke again?]

  55. health

    a. anxiety disorders only affect adults over the age of 50. b. workplace losses due to anxiety disorders have increased. c. medical costs associated with anxiety disorders have decreased. d. they are the second most common mental health problem in the U.S.

  56. English III Proofread and tips (:

    Hello! Could someone proofread this summary for me and give me some tips? Thanks so much! In Daniel Smith’s article, The Anxious Idiot, he discusses anxiety issues. He begins the article with an introduction to his anxiety disorder and proceeds to tell

  57. program planning

    Parents' feelings of guilt and anxiety about placing a child in a day care program can be relieved by A. the self-evaluation process. B. the personal interview. C. filling out enrollment forms. D. receiving a deferred enrollment.

  58. English

    Which statement is most accurate about Freeman Miller's feeling about the subjects of his poems? A the reader is not sure his feelings B he had positive feelings about them C he had negative feelings about them

  59. program planning

    Parents' feelings of guilt and anxiety about placing a child in a day care program can be relieved by A. the self-evaluation process.B. receiving a deferred enrollment.C. the personal interview.D. filling out enrollment forms. My answer is C

  60. English essay

    I am not very good at writing essays and I am having trouble with my first paragraph of a persuasive essay on smoking. Could you please give me feedback on what i could fix to make it better? thank you! We’ve all seen them, the person that is smoking in

  61. health

    Regular physical activity appears to reduce symptoms of ________ for children and adolescents. A. Anxiety and depression B. Low self-esteem C. Identity or role confusion D. All of the above i goty c

  62. health

    Question 11 of 20 5.0 Points Regular physical activity appears to reduce symptoms of ________ for children and adolescents. A. Anxiety and depression B. Low self-esteem C. Identity or role confusion D. All of the above i think it is b?

  63. statistics

    a public health investigator wishes to determine whether a new anti-smoking film actually reduces the daily consumption of cigarette by heavy smokers. The mean daily cigarette consumption is calculated consumption for each of eight heavy smokers during the

  64. epidemiology

    Assessing Random Error, Confounding, and Effect Modification Although researchers do their best to reduce error within every study, there will always be error. It is important to identify and report any possible error within the research study in order to

  65. Stats

    Research shows that 14% of 6th graders in K-6 schools have tried cigarettes and 61% of 7th graders in 8-9 or 7-9 middle schools have tried cigarettes. what is the absolute increase to the nearest percent? A. 77% B. 336% C. 436% D. 47% I don't know this one

  66. macroeconomic

    Which of the following items contribute(s) to an increase in real GDP? (i) The cost of cleanup after a hurricane hits Florida (ii) The market value of burglar alarms purchased to reduce crime (iii) The additional health care costs associated with smoking

  67. statistics

    Choose either 2 ¡Á 2 contingency table shown below (males or females). Research question: At ¦Á = .005, is smoking independent of race? (Smoking rates are from Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2001, pp. 16 and 12, applied to hypothetical

  68. Chemistry

    Compounds that reduce the surface tension of water are considered to be?

  69. Statistics

    1. In a study of heart disease in male federal employees, researchers classified 170 volunteer subjects according to their socioeconomic status (SES) and their smoking habits. SES categorized as high and low. Individuals were asked whether they were

  70. Math

    Hi again, I don't know how to solve this problem. cube root of(cube roof of(x-1)-1) It would be ninth root of 1/(x-1) Thank you. Do you think you can explain to me how did you solve it? what are your feelings about math, rate your math anxiety, and

  71. math

    A researcher wanted to answer the following question: What is the difference in students' computer anxiety based on whether or not they own computers? The researcher surveyed 92 undergraduate education students via an online survey. In the survey, the

  72. Health

    secondhand smoke is also referred to as _____. A. environmental tobacco smoke B. Involuntary smoking C. Passive smoking D. All of the above I said C but it was wrong

  73. PSYCHOLOGY

    what are the apparent symptoms of anxiety in terms of physiological, behavioral, and cognitive indicator? if both a parent and a child experience anxiety in similar situations, how would you account for the influences of heredity, preparedness, and

  74. health-smoking

    What is the purpose of nicotine replacement therapy? A. To reduce the number of cigarettes smoked B. To reduce the food cravings of a smoking patient who is cutting down on the number of cigarettes smoked per day. C. To replce the nicotine lost with

  75. Health

    My apologies if I make a mistake. I'm new to this, and my Health teacher has asked me to interview a smoker (a person that smokes cigarettes, not marijuana) The oldest you could be is 20... thank you in advance. 1. What is your first name? 2. How old are

  76. Health

    I have to make an advertisement to convince people to stop smoking that looks like a cigarette box, but I can't think of a title for my fake cigarettes. It's supposed to be a creative name that makes cigarettes look bad. For example, "Virginia Slimes"

  77. health

    Cigarette features that reduce the yield of machine-measured tar such as, in light cigarettes, also reduce the yield of nicotine. Because smokers crave nicotine, they may, ________. A. Inhale less deeply, take smaller, quicker, or less frequent puffs B.

  78. Economics

    Why would a government tax on cigarettes be an ineffective method to decrease consumption of cigarettes if demand for cigarettes is inelastic?

  79. AP Psychology

    Why would a neurosurgeon cut the corpus callosum and therefore disrupt left/ right brain hemisphere communication? reduce anxiety attacks and phobic reactions. prevent the spread of epileptic seizures. reduce the incidence of violent behaviors. treat

  80. Health

    Why would nicotine gum be helpful for a smoker trying to quit, since it contains the harmful drug? A. Gum contains such a low amount of nicotine the smoker can barely tell it is there. B. Chewing the gum takes the smoker’s mind off of cigarettes, which

  81. math

    what are your feelings about math, rate your math anxiety, and describe what coping mechanisms might be helpful to you and your I like math. What matters is what YOUR feelings amd "coping mechanisms" are.

  82. epidemiology

    In another study, the smoking habits of 34,445 male physicians were obtained by mailed questionnaires. Deaths among these physicians over the subsequent years were identified though contact with the office of the Registrar General. The death rates from

  83. Algebra

    It is estimated that each cigarette a person smokes shortens that person's life by the amount of time she or he took to smoke it plus ten minutes. Write an algebraic rule that determines the number of minutes (t) a person's life is shortened by smoking c

  84. Physiology

    How does medication like Clonidine reduce the effects of Heroin withdrawal (mainly chills and anxiety?)

  85. Epidemiology

    Evidence of an increased risk of lung cancer associated with cigarette smoking was sought by Doll and Hill. In one study, 649 lung cancer cases were matched by age, and gender to 649 controls; 647 of the cases and 622 of the control had a history of

  86. algebra

    Two commons sources of nicotine are cigarettes and cigars. Find the probability that a randomly selected adult does not smoke cigarettes.

  87. General

    How do you feel about the idea of "snack-size" cigarettes? Smaller cigarettes for a quick nicotine fix between meetings, classes, etc?

  88. Health

    Can someone tell me some differences and comparisons between Cigarettes and Electric Cigarettes?

  89. psy # 5- final revision

    Select one theory of personality and use this theory to tell Michael how this theory explains his situation. One of the theories that I select is the anxiety disorder. It is a serious condition that is caused by extreme and chronic anxiety, which

  90. Health

    Since 1964, the number of cigarettes smoked has A. increased dramatically. B. decreased to near zero. C. remained steady. D. declined steadily.***** Anti-smoking ads are an example of A. the influence of friends. B. the influence of family. C. the

  91. Math

    If Gasp cigarettes have 5 mG tar and 0.4 mG nicotine per cigarette and there are 20 cigarettes per pack, how many packs of cigarettes would have to be smoked to coat your lungs with 8 oz of tar? How many packs would you have to smoke to coat you lungs with

  92. Anatomy

    explain the effects of smoking on oxygen-hemoglobin saturation. Include in your answer a definition of saturation, the mechanism by which smoking effects saturation, and the consequences to the body Please try researching you question here:

  93. math

    vina has the following grades in math 88,85,89,95 and 91.What must be her sixth grade if she wants to get an average of 90?

  94. health class

    how do you convince someone to stop smoking. Also,how do you relieve stress without smoking or eating? Please help.

  95. Applied Behavioral

    which is the laragest preventable cause of death in the united states 1 smoking 3 alcoholiosm .3 methamphetamine use 4 Opiate ues My answer is smoking

  96. English

    Do these words evoke emotions? If so how? “impossible to predict”, “extreme panic attacks and high anxiety”, “risk of dependence”, aggravate anxiety”, “lethargic.”

  97. Economics

    Indicate how an understanding of demand and of elasticity of demand is useful in analysing the following statement. “If total consumer expenditure remains the same after a new tax is imposed on cigarettes then spending on cigarettes will decrease and

  98. Health

    What would you call the softening and thinning of the bones that may be caused by smoking? osteo perosis....but im not 100% sure http://arthritis.about.com/od/smoking/a/osteoporosis.htm OMG!! It fits! Thank you soooooooo much! :) no problem

  99. Economics

    Which of the following items contribute(s) to an increase in real GDP? (i) The cost of cleanup after a hurricane hits Florida (ii) The market value of burglar alarms purchased to reduce crime (iii) The additional health care costs associated with smoking

  100. psychology

    What are the apparent symptoms of anxiety in terms of physiological, behavioral, and cognitive indicators? If both a parent and a child experience anxiety in similar situations, how would you account for the influences of heredity, preparedness, and

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