# firm-level marginal cost and average cost functions

33,862 results

### Economics

Yeah, so I'm in urgent need of help with this homework. 1. Assume that in a perfectly competitive market, a firm's costs and revenue are: Marginal cost = average variable cost at $20 Marginal cost = average total cost at $30 Marginal cost = average revenue at $25 A) How will ...

### Maths

Demand function P=50-Q Average Cost 5Q + 40 +10/Q Calculate the firm's total cost function Find the marginal cost function and evaluate it at Q=2 and Q=3 What is the total revenue function Find the firms's revenue maximising output level Find the firm's profit function Take a ...

### Macroeconomics

You want to determine the profit-maximizing production quantity for a monopolist. You can ask the firm's consultant to draw the firm's revenue and cost curves, but each curve would cost you $1,000. From the following list indicate which curves you will request and why? a) ...

### econ

You want to determine the profit-maximizing production quantity for a monopolist. You can ask the firm's consultant to draw the firm's revenue and cost curves, but each curve would cost you $1,000. From the following list indicate which curves you will request and why? a) ...

### Macroeconomics

I need help to answer this question? You want to determine the profit-maximizing production quantity for a monopolist. You can ask the firm's consultant to draw the firm's revenue and cost curves, but each curve would cost you $1,000. From the following list indicate which ...

### Economics/Math

In a perfectly competitive industry, the market price is $25. A firm is currently producing 10,000 units of output, its average total cost is $28, its marginal cost is $20, and its average variable cost is $20. Given these facts, explain whether the following statements are ...

### Econ

A firm faces the following Average Cost function AC=1500Q^-1 + 300-27Q+1.5Q^2 Calculate the output level that minimizes: a) Marginal Cost b)Average Variable cost I need some help on this question. Thanks. If the average cost is AC=1500Q^-1 + 300-27Q+1.5Q^2 , then that is the ...

### economics

6)Assume the graph below represents the market demand for a patented prescription drug together with the firm-level marginal cost and average cost functions for producing the drug. Assume these cost curves do not reflect R&D costs of developing this drug, but only reflect ...

### math/economics in calculus

The average cost of manufacturing a quantity q of a good, is defined to be a(q) = C(q)/q. The average cost per item to produce q items is given by a(q) = 0.01q2 − 0.6q + 13, for q >0. I know that the total cost is 0.01q^3-0.6q^2+13q What is the minimum marginal cost? ...

### Economics

1. The law of diminishing returns implies that at some output level: a) Marginal cost must fall b) Average total cost must diminish c) profit increases d) Marginal cost must rise e) Total cost must fall 2. The vertical distance between total cost curve and total variable cost ...

### Micoreconomics

As a general rule, profit-maximizing producers in a competitive maket produce output at a point where: A) Marginal cost is increasing B) Marginal cost is decreasing C) marginal revenue is increasing D) Price is less then marginal revenue I picked C? The short-run supply curve ...

### Microeconomics

As a general rule, profit-maximiaing producers in a competitive maket produce ouput at a point where: A) marginal cost is increasing B) marginal cost is decreasing C) marginal revenue is increasing D) price is less than marginal revenue I was picking C for the answer? The ...

### Microeconomics

A profit-maximizing firm in a competitive market is currently producing 100 units of output. It has average revenue of $10, average total cost of $8, and ficed costs of $200. What are the firm's profit, marginal cost, and average varible cost respectively?

### math

The average cost of manufacturing a quantity q of a good, is defined to be a(q) = C(q)/q. The average cost per item to produce q items is given by a(q) = 0.01q2 − 0.6q + 13, for q >0. (a) What is the total cost, C(q),of producing q goods? For this do I just put the ...

### economics

A profit-maximizing firm in a competitive market is currently producing 100 units of output. It has average revenue so $10, average total cost of $8 and fixed cost of $200. a. what is the profit? b. what is the marginal cost? c. what is its average variable cost? d. is the ...

### Economics

5. A firm's marginal cost of production is constant at $5 per unit, and its fixed costs are $20. Draw its total, average variable and average costs. Marginal Cost (MC): $5 per unit Fixed Cost (FC): $20 Total Cost (TC): $25 Average Variable Cost (AVC): $5 FC is always going to ...

### Microeconomics

When average total cost is declining then: a) marginal cost must be less than average cost b) marginal cost must be greater than average cost c) average toal cost must be greater than average fixed cost d) average variable cost must be declining. My answer is d but my friend ...

### Microeconomics

A monopoly firm is faced with the following demand function P = 26 – 0.5Q. The Marginal Cost function for the firm is given by 6 + 6Q and the total fixed cost is 4. Determine a) The profit maximizing output. b) The level of supernormal profit if any. c) The output level at ...

### Economics

The market for fertilizer is perfectly competitive. Firms in the market are producing output, but they are currently making economic losses. a. How does the price of fertilizer compare to the average total cost, the average variable cost, and the marginal cost of producing ...

### Economics

Suppose that a firm is currently employing 30 workers, the only variable input, at a wage rate of $60. The average product of labor is 30, the last worker added 12 units to total output, and total fixed cost is: $3,600. a. What is marginal cost? b. What is average variable ...

### Economics

Suppose that a firm is currently employing 30 workers, the only variable input, at a wage rate of $60. The average product of labor is 30, the last worker added 12 units to total output, and total fixed cost is: $3,600. a. What is marginal cost? b. What is average variable ...

### home economics

Imagine that the efficient provision of telephone calls in a medium-sized city involves an initial investment of $100 million financed by borrowing at 6 percent and variable cost of 5 cents a phone call. The phone company's annual fixed cost would be $6.0 million (6.00 percent...

### MATHS

A company is a monopolist. The demand function for its product is as follows: Q = 60 – 0.4P + 6Y + 2A Where Q = quantity sold in units P = Price per unit Y = per capita disposal income (thousands of dollars) A = hundreds of dollars of advertising expenditures The firm’s ...

### Precalculus

Johnny's Tumblers sells plastic cups in bulk for start-up restaurants. Their cost for producing these is modeled by: c(x) = 0.02x^2 + 0.5x + 40 a) Since the marginal cost is found by taking the derivative, the formula for c'(x)= ? (My answer: 0.04x + 0.5) b) The marginal ...

### microeconomics

The short-run cost curve for each firm's long run equilibrium output is C=y^2-20y+400. Calculate the short-run average and marginal cost curves. At what output level does short-run average cost reach a minimum? I already know the MC and the SRA is TC/Q. I got the minimum as 10...

### Economics

Suppose Honda's total cost of producing 4 cars is $225,000 and its total cost of producing 5 cars is $250,000 a)What is the average total cost of producing 5 cars b)What is the marginal cost of the fifth car? c)Draw the marginal cost curve and the average total cost curve for ...

### Economic

How is income distribution affected in monopolies? The market for fertilizer is perfectly competitive. Firms in the market are producing output, but they are currently making economic losses. a. How does the price of fertilizer compare to the average total cost, the average ...

### Help!Microeconomics

Central Crude Oil is a crude oil monopoly in a market. The following table shows the liner demand schedule of this firm which cannot apply price discrimination. The firm's fixed cost is $2000 per month and its marginal cost is a constant of $20 per thousand of cubic feet. ...

### Managerial Economics

Suppose that a firm is currently employing 10 workers, the only variable input, at a wage rate of $100. The average physical product of labor is 25, the last worker added 10 units to total output, and total fixed cost is $5,000. a. What is marginal cost? b. What is average ...

### Managerial ECON

Suppose that a firm is currently employing 10 workers, the only variable input, at a wage rate of $100. The average physical product of labor is 25, the last worker added 10 units to total output, and total fixed cost is $5,000 a. What is marginal cost? b. What is average ...

### To: Economyst

Hi there. You helped me with a couple of questions regarding Econ. I appreciate the help but my issue is I don't understand how you calculate the minimum average variable cost or the output that maximizes profit. I do understand that the price is more than the AVC so they ...

### Help-Econ

Okay, this is due Tuesday. I'm woking on it but if anyone can help that would be great! Suppose firm A opeates in a perfectly competitive market. The price that currently prevails in the market is $1,000. Firm A's marginal cost is 20Q, where Q is output. Thus, as output ...

### economics

A firm has fixed costs of $30.00 and variable costs as indicated in the table below. Complete the table. Instructions: Round your answers so that you enter no more than 2 decimal places. Total Product Total Fixed Cost Total Variable Cost Total Cost Average Fixed Cost Average ...

### economics

Assume the graph below represents the market demand for a patented prescription drug together with the firm-level marginal cost and average cost functions for producing the drug. Assume these cost curves do not reflect R&D costs of developing this drug, but only reflect ...

### economics

Assume the graph below represents the market demand for a patented prescription drug together with the firm-level marginal cost and average cost functions for producing the drug. Assume these cost curves do not reflect R&D costs of developing this drug, but only reflect ...

### Math

For the given cost function 16 sqrt x+x^2/3375 The marginal cost at the production level 1700 The minimal average cost

### home economics

a firm produces 20 units of output at a market price of #5, a marginal cost of $5, and an average cost of $3. what is the firms economic profit and is the firm maiximizing its economic profit. Is the formula market price-average cost x quantity 20?

### Economics

10. An industry currently has 100 firms, all of which have fixed cost of $16 and average variable cost as follows: Quantity / Average variable cost: (1/$1),(2,$2), (3,$3), (4,$4), (5,$5), and (6,$6) b. The price is currently $10. What is the total quantity supplied in the ...

### advanced math

The marginal cost of a product can be thought of as the cost of producing one additional unit of output. For example, if the marginal cost of producing the 50th product is $6.20, it cost $6.20 to increase productionn from 49 to 50 units of output. Suppose the marginal cost C(...

### Business Economics

When we are given an expression for the Short Run Total Cost Curve (for eg: 8 + 3Q - 1.5Q^2 + 0.25Q^3), how do you derive expressions for the following: 1. Average Fixed Costs 2. Average Viarable Costs Curve 3. Marginal Costs Curve 4. Short Run Supply Curve I also have a ...

### economics

A monopoly firm is faced with the following demand function P = 13 – 0.5Q The Marginal Cost function for the firm is given by 3 + 4Q and the total fixed cost is 4 Determine 1. The the profit maximizing output 2.The level of supernormal profit if any 3. The output level at ...

### Microeconomics

A monopoly firm is faced with the following demand function P = 26 – 0.5Q. The Marginal Cost function for the firm is given by 6 + 6Q and the total fixed cost is 4. Determine a) The profit maximizing output. b) The level of supernormal profit if any. c) The output level at ...

### Algebra

83. Minimizing Marginal Cost The marginal cost of a product can be thought of as the cost of producing one additional unit of output. For example, if the marginal cost of producing the 50th product is $6.20, it cost $6.20 to increase production from 49 to 50 units of output. ...

### calculus

The total cost of producing x units is C(q) = 2q3- 6q2-18q+108 (a) At what level of production will the total cost be minimized? (b) At what level of production will the marginal cost be minimized? (c) At what level of production will the average cost be minimized? (use calcu...

### econ

The economist for the Grand Corporation has estimated the company’s cost function, using the times series data to be TC=50+16Q-2Q2+0.2Q3 a. Plot this curve for quanties 1 to 10 b. Calculate the average total cost, average variable cost and marginal cost for these quanties, ...

### home economics

The economist for the Grand Corporation has estimated the company’s cost function, using the times series data to be TC=50+16Q-2Q2+0.2Q3 a. Plot this curve for quanties 1 to 10 b. Calculate the average total cost, average variable cost and marginal cost for these quanties, ...

### econ 460

1. The demand for a new drug is given by P = 4 – 0.5Q. The marginal cost of manufacturing the drug is constant and equal to $1 per unit. (Prices and costs are in terms of dollars, and quantities are in millions). a. Illustrate on a diagram the following curves: demand, ...

### World Business Economics

13. Dell’s marginal cost curve and average total cost curve of producing a computer would shift upward if: A.) The firm realizes technological improvements B.) Workers become less productive C.) Materials prices decline for the firm D.) Business taxes decrease for the firm. ...

### economics

You are hired as the consultant to a monopolistically competitive firm. The firm reports the following information about its price, marginal cost, and average total cost. Can the firm possibly be maximizing profit? If not, what should it do to increase profit? If the...

### Business Calculus

A company has operating costs of $2000 per thousand items produced. Its revenue function can be modeled by the equation: R(x)=30x/(x+2)² , where x is measured in thousands of items produced, and C and R are measured in thousands of dollars (so C(x)=2). 1. Determine the price-...

### eco

if the marginal product of capital of a firm is 120unit of output, rental price of machine is $30. and marginal product of labor is 40units of output, daily wages is $20. 1)why is this firm not maximizing output or minimizing cost in long run?? 2)how can the firm max. output ...

### ecoc

TC=50+16 Q -2 Q2+0.2 Q3 a.plot this curve for quantites 1 to 10 b.calculate the average total cost,average variable cost, and marginal cost for these quantities, and plot them on another graph c. discuss your results in term of decreasing,constant, and increasing marginal costs.

### Microeconomics

A perfectly competitive industry has a large number of potential entrants. Each firm has an identical cost structure such that long run average cost is minimized at an output of 10 units (qi=10 ). The minimum average cost is R5 per unit. Total market demand is given by: Q=750-...

### Math check

Average cost = q^2¡V15q + 48 Calculate the output level (q), which minimizes a)Total Cost b)Marginal Cost I got an answer for a) is q=8 and b) is q=5 I need somebody to check it for me, thanks so much.

### ecoc

i can not figure this out the economist for the grand corporation has estimated the company's cost function, using time series data, to be TC=50+16Q-2Q2+0.2Q3 a.plot this curve for quantites 1 to 10 b.calculate the average total cost,average variable cost, and marginal cost ...

### Managerial Economics

When a firm increased its output by one unit, its Average Cost rose from $45 to 50. This implies that its Marginal cost is A)greater than $50 B)between $45 and $50 C)$5 D)cannot be determined from the above information

### Microeconomics

1. Complete Table-1 (Joseph Farms, Inc., Cost and Revenue Data), either as a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, or as a Microsoft Word table. Assume that the price is $165 and the fixed costs are $125, at an output level of 1. Also assume that the data represents a firm in pure ...

### Economics- Help Please!!!

MC = 125 - 0.42Q + 0.0021Q^2 Given the estimated marginal cost function, what are the total, variable, and average cost functions? At what output level does AVC reach its minimum value in the long run? What is the value of AVC at its minimum point?

### micro economics

Consider a firm that has a fixed cost of $60 a minute. output=1, Variable Cost= $10 what is the fixed cost?, Total Cost? Marginal cost?, AFC?, AVC? and ATC? Output is 2? Can't quite figue it out... thanks

### Calculus

Given that C(x)=2x^3-21x^2+36x+1000 is a cost function, determine the intervals for which the cost is increasing. Determine any intervals for which the marginal cost is increasing. Marginal cost is when you derive the cost function, correct? So do you do the second derivative ...

### Calculus PLEASE HELP

Given that C(x)=2x^3-21x^2+36x+1000 is a cost function, determine the intervals for which the cost is increasing. Determine any intervals for which the marginal cost is increasing. Marginal cost is when you derive the cost function, correct? So do you do the second derivative ...

### economics

Output Fixed Cost Variable Cost 1 $5 $10 2 $5 $27 3 $5 $55 4 $5 $91 5 $5 $145 (a) What is the total cost when output is 2? (b) What is the marginal cost of the third unit? (c) How much should this firm produce if the market price is $24?

### managerial maths

A company is selling product x, which has demand fucntion of p=52-2x and the total cost function of TC=3x^2+2x+10. the marginal revenue and marginal cost functions are; a) MR=52-2X and MC=6x+2 b) MR=52-4x and MC=6x+2 c) MR=52-2X and MC=6x d) MR=52-4x and MC=6x+2

### math

The daily total cost (in dollars) incurred by Trappee and Sons for producing x cases of TexaPep hot sauce is given by the following function. c(x)=0.000002x^3+3x+453 (a) Find the average cost function C. C = ? (b) Find the level of production that results in the smallest ...

### math

The daily total cost (in dollars) incurred by Trappee and Sons for producing x cases of TexaPep hot sauce is given by the following function. c(x)=0.000002x^3+3x+453 (a) Find the average cost function C. C = ? (b) Find the level of production that results in the smallest ...

### Math

The daily total cost (in dollars) incurred by Trappee and Sons for producing x cases of TexaPep hot sauce is given by the following function. (a) Find the average cost function C. C = ? (b) Find the level of production that results in the smallest average production cost. (...

### Economics/Math

Suppose you are the manager of a small chemical company operating in a competitive market. Your cost of production can be expressed as C = 100 + Q2, where Q is the level of output and C is total cost. a. Is this a short-run cost function? b. What is the marginal cost function...

### economics

A monopolist faces an upward-sloping marginal cost curve. Its profit-maximizing quantity will be a. at the minimum point of the marginal cost curve b. less than the (total) revenue-maximizing quantity c. equal to the (total) revenue-maximizing quantity d. in the unit elastic ...

### Managerial Economics

Assume the only choice variable is total benefit function is B(x) = 170x-x², and cost function is C(x) = 100-10x + 2x². a. What are the marginal benefit and marginal cost functions? b. Set up the net benefit function and then determine the level x that maximises net benefit...

### Managerial ECON

The chief economist for Argus Corporation, a large appliance manufacturer, estimated the firm’s short- run cost function for vacuum cleaners using an average variable cost function of the form AVC = a + bQ + cQ2 where AVC dollars per vacuum cleaner and Q number of vacuum ...

### Economics

Variable cost divided by the change in quantity produced is A. average variable cost. B. marginal cost. C. average total cost. D. None of the above is correct.

### Economics

50. In both monopolistic competition and non-price-discriminating monopoly, isn't the marginal revenue curve lies below the demand curve? 51. A monopolistically competitive firm is producing an output level where marginal revenue is greater than marginal cost. This firm should...

### economics

Bubba's Burgers sells hamburgers in a perfectly competitive market at a price of $1.50 each. At the profit-maximizing (cost-minimizing) level of output, average total cost is $1.90 per hamburger and average variable cost is $1.75 per hamburger. Should the firm continue to ...

### economics

The graph on the left shows the short-run marginal cost curve for a typical firm selling in a perfectly competitive industry. The graph on the right shows current industry demand and supply. a. What is the marginal revenue that this perfectly competitive firm will earn on its ...

### Calculus

The total cost (in dollars) of producing x golf clubs per day is given by the formula C(x)=500+100x−0.1x2. (A) Find the marginal cost at a production level of x golf clubs. C′(x) = (B) Find the marginal cost of producing 35 golf clubs. Marginal cost for 35 clubs =

### Economics Review Help!

This is for a test that I'm studying for in Economics. I never did understand this stuff. Here's what I have to figure out. I've never been good at Economics, but I'm trying to get this stuff down for my final. Any help would be appreciated. Thanks in advance. Question 73 of ...

### economics

For the total variable cost (TVC), draw a positive total fixed cost (TFC) and total cost (TC) curves. Then derive the associated marginal cost (MC), average total cost (ATC), average variable (AVC) and average fixed cost (AFC) curves. Be sure to capture and explain the ...

### economics

# You produce shoes. Currently you produce 4 pairs of shoes at a total cost of %40. a)what is your average total cost (ATC) b)Suppose you could produce one more( fifth)pair at a marginal cost of $20. If you do produce that fifth pair of shoe, what will your average total cost ...

### math

The total cost C(x) of a firm is C(x) = 0.0005x^3 – 0.7x^2 – 30x + 3,000, where x is the output. The value of x; for which MVC = AVC is: (where VC denotes the variable cost, MVC denotes marginal variable cost and AVC denotes average variable cost

### economics

Teddy Bear, Inc., a rapidly growing manufacturer of high fashion children's shoes, plans to open a new production facility in Gastonia. Based on information provided by the accounting department, the company estimates fixed costs of $250,000 per year. Its average variable cost...

### Microeconomics

A firm currently uses 40,000 workers to produce 180,000 units per day. The daily wage per worker is $100, and the price of the firm’s output is $28. The cost other variable input is $500,000 per day. (Note assume that output is constant at the level of 180,000 units per day...

### Economics

. Consider total cost and total revenue given in the table below: QUANTITY 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total cost $8 $9 $10 $11 $13 $19 $27 $37 Total revenue 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 a. Calculate profit for each quantity. How much should the firm produce to maximize profit? b. Calculate ...

### Economics

6. Consider total cost and total revenue given in the table below: QUANTITY 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total cost $8 $9 $10 $11 $13 $19 $27 $37 Total revenue 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 a. Calculate profit for each quantity. How much should the firm produce to maximize profit? b. Calculate ...

### Economics

6. Consider total cost and total revenue given in the table below: QUANTITY 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total cost $8 $9 $10 $11 $13 $19 $27 $37 Total revenue 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 a. Calculate profit for each quantity. How much should the firm produce to maximize profit? b. Calculate ...

### microeconomics

consider total cost and total revenue given in the table bellow: quantity total cost total revenue 0 $8 0 1 $9 8 2 $10 16 3 $11 24 4 $13 32 5 $19 40 6 $27 48 7 $37 56 a. Calculate profit for each quantity. How much should the firm produce to maximize profit? b. Calculate ...

### Calculus

How do you show that the minimum average cost occurs when the average cost equals the marginal cost?

### Economics - Theory of the Firm

If Average Variable Cost AVC = 10 + Q and P = 50. Find: Total Cost TC, Total Fixed Cost TFC, Total Variable Cost TVC, Average Total Cost ATC, Average Fixed Cost AFC

### economics

This is going to be really long, but I want to see if my answers are correct. This is problem number 10.10 in my Intermediate Microeconomics book. A perfectly competitive painted necktie industry has a large number of potential entrants. Each firm has an identical cost ...

### Economics

An industry currently has 100 firms, all of which have fixed costs of $16 and avg. variable cost as follows: Q Avg. Variable Cost ($) 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 a. Compute marginal cost and avg. total cost. b. the price is $10. what is the total quantity supplied in the market? c...

### Microeconomics

Lentz's Incorporated sells paper in a perfectly competitive market at a price of $2 per ream. At the profit-maximizing (cost-minimizing) level of output, average total cost is $2.50 per ream and average variable cost is $1.95 per ream. Should the firm continue to operate in ...

### economics (micro)

2. In the table below, assume a monopsonist has the marginal-revenue-product schedule for a particular type of labor given in columns 1 and 2 and that the supply schedule for labor is that given in columns 1 and 3. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Number of MRP Wage Total Marginal labor ...

### economics

HELP!!!!! One and only Inc is a monopolist. The demand function for its product is estimated to be Q=60-0.4P +6Y+2A Y=3,000 P=Price per Unit Y=Per capita disposable personal income (thousands of dollars) A=hundreds of dollars of advertising expenses The Firms average variable ...

### ECONOMICS

A monopolistically competitve firm produces 100 units of output per period, selling each unit for $75. Marginal revenue and marginal cost of the one-hundredth unit are each $50. Average total cost is $60. a) Does this situation correspond to short-run equilibrium? Why or why ...

### Economics

Two-Part Tariff Problem Suppose that each of a firm’s customers has the following demand curve: P = 20 – 2Q. Suppose also that the firm’s total cost function is TC = 8Q. The firm is considering three pricing strategies. Strategy 1: A single per unit fee. (No entrance fee...

### Managerial ECON

Suppose that a firm is currently employing 20 workers, the only variable input, at a wage rate of $60. The average product of labor is 30, the last worker added 12 units to total output, and total fixed cost is $3,600. a. What is marginal cost? b. What is average variable cost...

### intro-cal

a company makes x toys daily at a cost of C(x)=125+30x+2(x to the power of 2/3) dollars. what daily production level will minimize the average cost? (note define average cost as the Total cost divided by the total number of items) thx According to your definition Average Cost...

### Calculus

The marginal cost for producing x units of a certain product is given by the formula MC = 0.001x^2-0.5x+66.5. A. What is the increase in the cost of the production if the production level is raised from 200 to 400 units? B. What is the average cost per item of producing 330 ...

### economic

5) Assume the graph below represents the market demand for a patented prescription drug together with the long run marginal cost and average cost functions for producing the drug. (note: the diagram assumes that at output levels over 50 million AFC ~ 0, and MC is constant so ...

### ECONOMICS

suppose that the short run costs for a paintbrush manufacturer are given by the expression: TC= 100+2Q+.01 Q2 A. WAT ARE THE FIXED COSTS OF THIS MANUFACTURE? B. WHAT ARE THE TOTAL COSTS , AVERAGE COST, AVERAGE VARIABLE COST AND MARGINAL COST AT 50 AND 100 UNITS OF OUTPUT? C. ...