Let f be the frequency, v wav the speed, and T the period of a sinusoidal traveling wave. The correct relationship is: a)f=1/T b)f=vwav + T c)f=vwavT d)f=vwav/T e)f=T/vwav My thoughts: I think the answer is D.Since frequency is equal
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physics
Let f be the frequency, v wav the speed, and T the period of a sinusoidal traveling wave. The correct relationship is: a)f=1/T b)f=vwav + T c)f=vwavT d)f=vwav/T e)f=T/vwav My thoughts: I think the answer is D.Since frequency is equal to T=1/f so f=1/T. Vwav is connected to f ... 
Physics
Let f be the frequency, v wav the speed, and T the period of a sinusoidal traveling wave. The correct relationship is: a)f=1/T b)f=vwav + T c)f=vwavT d)f=vwav/T e)f=T/vwav My thoughts: I think the answer is D.Since frequency is equal to T=1/f so f=1/T. Vwav is connected to f ... 
physics (please help)
Let f be the frequency, v wav the speed, and T the period of a sinusoidal traveling wave. The correct relationship is: a)f=1/T b)f=vwav + T c)f=vwavT d)f=vwav/T e)f=T/vwav My thoughts: Since frequency is equal to T=1/f so f=1/T. Vwav is connected to f by the equation v=lambda... 
Physics recheck
Let f be the frequency, v wav the speed, and T the period of a sinusoidal traveling wave. The correct relationship is: a)f=1/T b)f=vwav + T c)f=vwavT d)f=vwav/T e)f=T/vwav My thoughts: Since frequency is equal to T=1/f so f=1/T. Vwav is connected to f by the equation v=lambda... 
Physics
The period of longitudinal sinusoidal wave is 0.16 seconds and its wavelength is 8.0 meters. Calculate the wave's speed, frequency, angular frequency and wave number. 
Physics (please help)
A sinusoidal wave travels along a string. The time for a particle to move from maximum displacement to zero is 0.170s. What are the a)period b)frequency c) the wavelength is 1.40m what is the wave speed? ok I know i need the equation T=1/f and the wave equation y=YSIN{kxwt... 
Physics
A sinusoidal wave traveling on a string is moving in the positive xdirection. The wave has a wavelength of 8 m, a frequency of 60 Hz, and an amplitude of 9 cm. What is the wave function for this wave? (Use any variable or symbol stated above as necessary.) I think the ... 
Physics Helpppp
Q11 a(ii)A sinusoidal carrier wave has frequency 500 kHz and amplitude 6.0 V. It is to be frequency modulated by a sinusoidal wave of frequency 8 kHz and amplitude 1.5 V. The frequency deviation of the carrier wave is 20 kHz V^–1 Describe, for the carrier wave, the variation... 
Intergarted Science
I had a couple of questions on the topic of WavesSound and Light. 1. What is the source of all waves? *Vibration* 2. In one word, what is it that moves from source to receiver in a wave motion? *Energy* 3. Does the medium in which a wave travels move with the wave? *No* 4. ... 
science
A bird sits on a pole and watches waves. The wave crests are 1.0 meter apart. If one wave crest passes the pole each second, what is the speed of the wave? . What is the period of the wave? . What is the frequency of the wave? . If the waves change so that the distance between... 
WavesScience
I had a couple of questions on the topic of WavesSound and Light. 1. What is the source of all waves? *Vibration* 2. In one word, what is it that moves from source to receiver in a wave motion? *Energy* 3. Does the medium in which a wave travels move with the wave? *No* 4. ... 
physics
A sinusoidal wave on a string is described by the equation y = (0.169 m) sin (0.713 x  41.9 t), where x and y are in meters and t is in seconds. If the linear mass density of the string is 10.1 g/m .. if needs values of these ( the speed of the wave is 58.77 m/s) (the ... 
Physics
A sinusoidal wave is traveling on a string with speed 30.00 cm/s. The displacement of the particles of the string at x = 15 cm is found to vary with time according to the equation y = (5.0 cm) sin[1.5  (3.0 s1)t]. The linear density of the string is 5.0 g/cm. (a) What is the... 
Physics
A sinusoidal wave traveling on a string is moving in the positive xdirection. The wave has a wavelength of 6 m, a frequency of 48 Hz, and an amplitude of 9 cm. What is the wave function for this wave? (Use any variable or symbol stated above as necessary.) I know the answer ... 
AP Physic
Hi there I am having so much problems trying to solve this physic problem and I really need help. Please give me a big hint on how to find the amplitude of this problem because i tried using everything i know and i cannot figure it out. This homework problem deals with wave ... 
Physical science
A wave travels along a string at a speed of 1,5m 1s.if the frequency of the source of the wave is 7,5hz,calculate:(a)the wavelength of the wave..(b)the period of the wave 
Precalc/Trig
wave is modeled by the function ... h(t) = 3cos(p/10)*t What is the period of the wave (T) *frequency (F) is defined as the number of cycles of the motion per second. What is the relationship between F and T? Find the wave height (H) which is the vertical distance between the ... 
Physics
A sine wave is traveling to the right on a cord. The lighter line in the figure represents the shape of the cord at time t = 0; the darker line represents the shape of the cord at time t = 0.10 s. (Note that the horizontal and vertical scales are different.) (a) What is the ... 
physical
a police siren emits a sinusoidal wave with frequency f=300hz.the speed of sound is 340ms. find the wave lenght of the waves if the siren is at rest in the air 
Physics
Tsunamis are fastmoving waves often generated by underwater earthquakes. In the deep ocean their amplitude is barely noticable, but upon reaching shore, they can rise up to the astonishing height of a sixstory building. One tsunami, generated off the Aleutian islands in ... 
PHYSICAL SCIECE
A seismic wave has a velocity of 5000 m/s and a frequency of 4Hz. wht is the wavelength of this wave? if this was a light wave traveling in a vacuum with the same wavelength, what would be its period? 
physics
A wave traveling in the + x direction has an amplitude of 0.35 m, a speed of 5.2 m/s, and a frequency of 14 Hz. Determine: 3.1.the wavelength, (2) 3.2.the wave number, (2) 3.3the angular velocity, (2) 3.4. the equation of the wave 
PhysicsPlease checkI had something wrong with my
Would changing the frequency of a wave cause a change in amplitude? I would say only if the wave velocity remains the same because if the frequency increases, vibrations increase and then amplitude would decrease, correct? If I had a wave diagram will 4 complete waves showing ... 
AP Physic
Hi there I am having a lot of trouble trying to figure out this homework problem and I really need help. This problem is dealing with wave motion and I do not know how to set up the formula to get the correct answer. Please help me and show some steps how to approach this ... 
physics  SHM
Two sinusoidal waves with identical wavelengths and amplitudes travel in opposite directions along a string with a speed of 11 cm/s. If the time interval between instants when the string is flat is 0.33 s, what is the wavelength of the waves? wavelength = (wave speed) / (... 
PhysicsPlease check?
Would changing the frequency of a wave cause a change in amplitude? I would say NO because they don't affect each other, correct? If I had a wave diagram will 4 complete waves showing and it said the diagram represented 4 sec in time the frequency would be 1cycle/ per second, ... 
physics
A point on a string undergoes simple harmonic motion as a sinusoidal wave passes. When a sinusoidal wave with speed 24 m/s, wavelength 30 cm, and amplitude of 1.0 cm passes, what is the max speed of a point on the string? 
Science
A wave is determined to have a frequency of 12 Hz and a wavelength of 8.5 meters. What is the speed of the wave? Show all of your work, including the formula and correct units. I am not really sure how to set up the equation for this. Speed= wavelength x frequency... So would ... 
Physics
1) A wave with frequency 3.1 Hz and amplitude 2.7 cm moves in the positive xdirection with speed 5.6 m/s. Determine the wavelength. 2) The equation of a wave along the xaxis is given as: ξ cm = 3.4 sin (1.13 x  0.75 t) in which ξ is the displacement. Units on the ... 
physics
The wave function (x,t)=(0.03m)sin(2.2x3.5t) is for a harmonic wave on a string. (a) In what direction does this wave travel and what is its speed? (b) Find the wavelength, frequency, and period of this wave. (c) What is the maximum displacement of any point on the string? (d... 
Physics
The equation y=5 sin(3x4), where y is in mm, x is in m and t is in secs, represents a wave motion. Determine the frequency, period and speed of the wave 
physics
A sinusoidal wave on a string is described by the equation y = (0.169 m) sin (0.713 x  41.9 t), where x and y are in meters and t is in seconds. If the linear mass density of the string is 10.1 g/m ... a) ... the phase of the wave at x = 2.27 cm and t = 0.175 s. ? b)... the ... 
physics
A sinusoidal wave on a string is described by the equation y = (0.169 m) sin (0.713 x  41.9 t), where x and y are in meters and t is in seconds. If the linear mass density of the string is 10.1 g/m ... a) ... the phase of the wave at x = 2.27 cm and t = 0.175 s. ? b)... the ... 
physics
A sinusoidal wave on a string is described by the equation y = (0.169 m) sin (0.713 x  41.9 t), where x and y are in meters and t is in seconds. If the linear mass density of the string is 10.1 g/m ... a) ... the phase of the wave at x = 2.27 cm and t = 0.175 s. ? b)... the ... 
Physics
You are standing on a beach and 5 wave crests land on shore in 50 seconds. Each wave is 32m apart. Find Frequency, period, wavelength and speed. 
physics please helpp
A sinusoidal wave on a string is described by the equation y = (0.169 m) sin (0.713 x  41.9 t), where x and y are in meters and t is in seconds. If the linear mass density of the string is 10.1 g/m ... a) ... the phase of the wave at x = 2.27 cm and t = 0.175 s. ? b)... the ... 
Physics: Wave Motion
A vibrator in a ripple tank vibrates with a frequency of 3.0 Hz and an amplitude of 2.5 cm. The resulting waves travel away from the source with a speed of 2.5 cm/s, passing under various markers floating on the water. (a)In what direction(s) do the marker move? (b) With what ... 
Physics:Wave Motion
A vibrator in a ripple tank vibrates with a frequency of 3.0 Hz and an amplitude of 2.5 cm. The resulting waves travel away from the source with a speed of 2.5 cm/s, passing under various markers floating on the water. (a)In what direction(s) do the marker move? (b) With what ... 
physics
e AM and FM radio waves are transverse waves consisting of electric and magnetic disturbances traveling at a speed of 3.00 x 10 8 m/s. A station broadcasts an AM radio wave whose frequency is 1230 x 10 3 Hz. (1230 kHz on the dial) and an FM radio wave whose frequency is 99.1 x... 
Physics
Medical x rays are taken with electromagnetic waves having a wavelength around .1 nm. What are the frequency, period, and wave number of such waves? ok I got the frequency as 3 * 10^18 Hz and the wave number as 6.3 *10^10 rad/m but I can't seem to remember how to get period. 
physics
A skipper on a boat notices wave crests passing his anchor chain every 9 s. He estimates the distance between wave crests to be 15 m. He also correctly estimates the speed of the waves. What is this speed? Wavelenght* frequency= wave speed remember that frequency here is 1wave... 
Physics
The sinusoidal waveform can be varied by using which of the following parameters?? I. frequency of the carrier wave II.Amplitude of the carrier wave III. Phase angle 
physics
. A long string carries a wave; a 6m segment of the string contains four complete wavelengths and has a mass of 180 g. The string vibrates sinusoidal with a frequency of 50 Hz and a peaktovalley displacement of 15 cm. (The “peakto valley” distance is the vertical ... 
physics(waves)
A wave has a speed of 340m/s and a period of 0.28ms. what's the wavelength? so I worked this and I got 95.2m but the answer to d question says 0.095m. period(T) = 1/F (since F = 1/T) therefore, F = 1/0.28 = 3.5714 wavelength = velocity/frequency w = 340/3.5714 = 95.2m (Isn't ... 
physics
Given the information which statements are true or false? We know that when we pluck a string on an instrument the resulting sound wave travels through the air at a speed of (about) 344 m/s. But the wave moving on the STRING itself doesn't have to travel at 344 m/s. Let's ... 
Physics
Let's consider some of the things that affect the velocity of a standing wave on a string: decide whether each of the following statements are TTrue, or FFalse. (If the first is T and the rest are F, enter TFFFF) A) The velocity of the wave traveling on a string is higher if... 
Waves (Physics)
I have trouble with these 2 problems, can anyone assist me to answer them? 18) What is the speed of a periodic wave disturbance that has a frequency of 3.50 Hz and a wavelength of 0.700 m? 21) A periodic longitudinal wave that has a frequency of 20.0 Hz travels along a coil ... 
physics
Two sinusoidal waves travel in the same direction and have the same frequency. Their amplitudes are Y1 and Y2. The smallest possible amplitude of the resultant wave is: a) Y1 + Y2 and occurs if they are 180 degrees out of phase b)[Y1  Y2] and occurs if the are 180 degrees out... 
physics
A sinusoidal transverse wave of amplitude ym = 3.2 cm and wavelength = 3.4 cm travels on a stretched cord. Find the ratio of the maximum particle speed (the speed with which a single particle in the cord moves transverse to the wave) to the wave speed. 
physics
A sinusoidal transverse wave of amplitude ym = 6.4 cm and wavelength = 5.2 cm travels on a stretched cord. Find the ratio of the maximum particle speed (the speed with which a single particle in the cord moves transverse to the wave) to the wave speed. 
physics
A sound wave travels in air at a frequency of 500 Hz. If part of the wave travels from air into water, does its frequency change? Does its wavelength change? Note that the speed of sound in air is about 340 m/s, whereas the speed of osund in water is about 1500 m/s. Frequency ... 
Physics
20 wave crests pass a fisherman in one minute if the wave crests are 2.0 m apart find: Period Frequency Speed of waves 
Physics
A wave traveling in the +x direction has an amplitude of 0.50 m, a speed of 5.7 m/s, and a frequency of 18 Hz. Write the equation of the wave in the form given by either Equation 16.3 or 16.4. (Answer in terms of t and x. Assume standard units.) please check my answer: y= A ... 
Physics
While watching ocean waves at the dock of the bay, Otis notices that 9 waves pass beneath him in 28 seconds. He also notices that the crests of successive waves exactly coincide with the posts that are 5 meters apart. What are the period, frequency, wavelength, and speed of ... 
MATH SINUSOIDAL APPLICATION
Would pulling a roll of thread create a sinusoidal function? please suggest some real life application of sinusoidal wave that i can experiment with... 
physics
A plane progressive wave is represented by the wave equation: y=0.1sin(200 ðt20ðx/17) Where y is in millimetres, t is in seconds, and x is the distance from a fixed origin, O, in metres. Find: The frequency of the wave The wavelength of the wave The speed of the wave... 
Physics
Waves of all wavelengths travel at the same speed v on a given string. Traveling wave velocity and wavelength are related by v=lambda*f,where v is the wave speed, lambda is the wavelength (in meters), and f is the frequency [in hertz]. Since only certain wavelengths fit ... 
Physics
Suppose that a police car on the highway is moving to the right at 20 m/s, while a speeder is coming up from almost directly behind at a speed of 31 m/s, both speeds being with respect to the ground. The police officer aims a radar gun at the speeder. Assume that the ... 
Physics (please help)
Two sinusoidal waves travel in the same direction and have the same frequency. Their amplitudes are Y1 and Y2. The smallest possible amplitude of the resultant wave is: a) Y1 + Y2 and occurs if they are 180 degrees out of phase b)[Y1  Y2] and occurs if the are 180 degrees out... 
Physics
Calculate the period of the wave if it makes 10 vibrations in 2 seconds. Does anyone know the formula for this? frequency = (number of waves) divided by(observation time) = 10/2 = 5 Hertz period = 1/frequency = ? 
Science
9. FM signals travel as changes in (1 point) A.the speed of the wave. B.the amplitude of the wave. C.the frequency of the wave.*** D.the loudness of the wave. 
Physics
A string has a linear density of 6.7 x 103 kg/m and is under a tension of 210 N. The string is 1.6 m long, is fixed at both ends, and is vibrating in the standing wave pattern shown in the drawing. Determine the (a) speed, (b) wavelength, and (c) frequency of the traveling ... 
physics
A wave on a string has a wave function given by y(x, t) = (0.0210 m)sin[(6.91 m^−1)x + (2.38 s^−1)t . (a) What is the amplitude of the wave? (b) What is the period of the wave? (c) What is the wavelength of the wave? (d) What is the speed of the wave? 
phy132
a taut rope has a mass of 0.180kg and a lemgth of 3.6m.what power must be supplied to the rope to generate sinusoidal waves having an amplitude of 0.1m and a wave length of 0.5m and traveling with a speed of 30mper second 
Physics
Two sound waves are traveling through a container of unknown gas. Wave A has a wavelength of 1.2 m. Wave B has a wavelength of 3.6 m. The frequency of wave B must be __________ the frequency of wave A. a. oneninth b. onethird c. the same as d. three times larger than the ... 
physics concept
1.How many vibrations per second are represented in a radio wave of 101.7 MHz 2.The speed of a wave on a string depends on: a.the material properties of the string b. the amplitude of the wave c.both 3.The time interval for one repetition of the cycle in simple harmonic motion... 
Physics
A vibrator in a ripple tank vibrates with a frequency of 3.0 Hz and an amplitude of 2.5 cm. The resulting waves travel away from the source with a speed of 2.5 cm/s, passing under various markers floating on the water. (a)In what direction(s) do the marker move? (b) With what ... 
Physics
A vibrator in a ripple tank vibrates with a frequency of 3.0 Hz and an amplitude of 2.5 cm. The resulting waves travel away from the source with a speed of 2.5 cm/s, passing under various markers floating on the water. (a)In what direction(s) do the marker move? (b) With what ... 
Physics
A vibrator in a ripple tank vibrates with a frequency of 3.0 Hz and an amplitude of 2.5 cm. The resulting waves travel away from the source with a speed of 2.5 cm/s, passing under various markers floating on the water. (a)In what direction(s) do the marker move? (b) With what ... 
Physics
How do you calculate the wave speed of waves that are 0.15 m apart, and have a frequency of 2 Hz? Wavelength is given, frequency is given. frequency*wavelength = wave speed. Thanks a whole lot 
Science
When a sound wave passes from air into a solid object, which of the following wave properties change? frequency wave speed amplitude wave length Can be more than one 
Physics
A woman is standing in the ocean, and she notices that after a wave crest passes by, five more crests pass in a time of 68.0 s. The distance between two successive crests is 34.1 m. What is the wave's (a) period, (b) frequency, (c) wavelength, and (d) speed? 
Physics
A woman is standing in the ocean, and she notices that after a wave crest passes by, five more crests pass in a time of 68.0 s. The distance between two successive crests is 34.1 m. What is the wave's (a) period, (b) frequency, (c) wavelength, and (d) speed? 
physics (please help)
Two identical but separate strings, with the same tension, carry sinusoidal waves with the same frequency. Wave A has an amplitude that is twice that of wave B and transmits energy at a rate that is _____ that of wave B. a)half b)twice c) onefourth d)four times e) eight times... 
physics
the speed of a certain wave is 3.00cm/s. if its frequency is 0.20hz, what are its wavelength and period 
physics
A speeding car is pulling away from a police car. The police car is moving at 30 m/s. The radar gun in the police car emits an electromagnetic wave with a frequency of 20.0 x 10^9 Hz. The wave reflects from the speeding car and returns to the police car where the frequency is ... 
Physics
Radio amateurs are permitted to communicate on the "10 meter band." What frequency of radio waves corresponds to a wavelengthy of 20m? (The speed of radio wave is 3.00 x 10(8)m/s). Can you help me with setting up the formula? frequency = (wave speed)/(wavelength) Divide 3*10^8... 
Physics
A string has a linear density of 6.7 x 103 kg/m and is under a tension of 210 N. The string is 1.6 m long, is fixed at both ends, and is vibrating in the standing wave pattern shown in the drawing. Determine the (a) speed, (b) wavelength, and (c) frequency of the traveling ... 
physics
A string has a linear density of 8.1 x 103 kg/m and is under a tension of 200 N. The string is 2.9 m long, is fixed at both ends, and is vibrating in the standing wave pattern shown in the drawing. Determine the (a) speed, (b) wavelength, and (c) frequency of the traveling ... 
Physics
A string has a linear density of 6.2 x 103 kg/m and is under a tension of 250 N. The string is 1.2 m long, is fixed at both ends, and is vibrating in the standing wave pattern shown in the drawing. Determine the (a) speed, (b) wavelength, and (c) frequency of the traveling ... 
Physics
A string has a linear density of 6.2 x 103 kg/m and is under a tension of 250 N. The string is 1.2 m long, is fixed at both ends, and is vibrating in the standing wave pattern shown in the drawing. Determine the (a) speed, (b) wavelength, and (c) frequency of the traveling ... 
physics
The figure below represents a periodic wave. Each increment on the equilibrium line is 760 cm. What is the wavelength for this wave (in m)?If the wave in the figure above has a frequency of 60 Hz, what is the wave's speed? 
university physics
A bat flying toward a wall at a speed of 6.47 m/s emits an ultrasound wave with a frequency of 27.5 kHz. What frequency does the reflected wave have when it reaches the flying bat? (Assume that the speed of sound is v = 341 m/s.) 
Physics
Two nearby nodes of a standing wave are separated by 4.5 m. If the frequency of the wave is 184 Hz, what is the speed of the wave? 
texas southern university
A periodic wave has a frequency of 8.9 Hz. What is the wave period? ??__s 
Physics !>:(
A wave has angular frequency 46.2rad/s and wavelength 3.57m. What is its wave number? b).What is its wave speed? 
physics
The period of an ocean wave is 20 seconds. Calculate the wave's frequency. 
physics. HELP PLEASE
A string has a linear density of 5.3 x 103 kg/m and is under a tension of 370 N. The string is 1.8 m long, is fixed at both ends, and is vibrating in the standing wave pattern shown in the drawing. Determine the (a) speed, (b) wavelength, and (c) frequency of the traveling ... 
Physics help
a wave with a frequency of 3.1 hz and a wavelength of 0.3 meters experiences a lengthening of wavelength to 2.6 meters what is the new frequency of this wave? a wave generator produces a wave with a frequency of 45 hz and a wavelength of 1.9 meters. If the settings on the wave... 
Physics
5. If a wave has a wavelength of 20m and a speed of 100 m/s, what is the period of the oscillation? v = wavelength / period 100 = 20 / period 100*20 = periodperiod = 20 / 100 2000 s = period OR period = 20 / 100 period = 0.2 s I don't know which one is correct, please help?! 
Algebra 2
The frequency of a radio wave is inversely proportional to the wavelength. If a wave 250 m long has a frequency of about 1200 kHz, what is the approximate length of a wave with a frequency of 800 kHz? A. 167 m B. 258 m C. 325 m D. 375 m 
Physics
Suppose that a police car on the highway is moving to the right at 27 m/s, while a speeder is coming up from almost directly behind at a speed of 35 m/s, both speeds being with respect to the ground. The police officer aims a radar gun at the speeder. Assume that the ... 
Physics
Write the expression for y as a function of x and t in SI units for a sinusoidal wave traveling along a rope in the negative x direction with the following characteristics : A = 8 cm, wavelength = 80cm, f =3hz and y(0,t) = 0 at t = 0. b) what if? Write an expression for y as a... 
physics
Amplitude of the wave is 0.2m. The time period of the vibration is 0.5secs. Calculate the frequency, velocity and the wave length. 
physics need help anybody
The equation y=As in(wtkx)represents a plane wave traveling along the xdirection. If a=0.10m, w=8500hz and k=25/secs......Calculate the speed of the Waves Calculate the speed of the medium through which the wave is travelingl What is the equation of the reflected wave ... 
Science
The question in the book says: A wave has a wavelength of 2mm and a frequency of 3 Hz. At what speed does the wave travel? I know the answer is 6, because the formula is Speed= Wavelength X Frequency, but I don't know how to write the final answer, it's going to be 6?? Can you... 
science
The equation y=5sin(3x4) where y is in millimeters,x is in metres and t in seconds,represent motion. Find; Frequency Period Speed of the wave 
Physics
Light is an electromagnetic wave and travels at a speed of 3.00 108 m/s. The human eye is most sensitive to yellowgreen light, which has a wavelength of 5.58 107 m. What is the frequency of this light? Ever heard of the equation (wavelength) x (frequency) = wave speed? Use ... 
sir damon i need u help physics
The equation y=As in(wtkx)represents a plane wave traveling along the xdirection. If a=0.10m, w=8500hz and k=25/secs......Calculate the speed of the Waves Calculate the speed of the medium through which the wave is travelingl What is the equation of the reflected wave ... 
Physics
Exploration 3: A Moving Source at Different Velocities Procedure 1. Set Wave speed to 10.0 cm/s and Source frequency to 1.0 Hz. Place the detector anywhere. 2. Set Source speed to 6.0 cm/s. Select Go. Sketch the resulting wavefront pattern on a separate sheet of paper. 3. ...