biology

1. What are the three parts that make up a nucleotide?



2. What is the sugar found in DNA?



3. What are the four different bases found in DNA nucleotides?



4. What two parts make up the sides of the DNA “ladder”?



5. What holds the sugars and the phosphates together?



6. What makes up the rungs of the DNA “ladder”?



7. To what part of the nucleotide are the rungs attached?



8. What is the “base-pairing” rule? How do the nucleotides pair together?



9. What holds the nitrogen bases together?



10. What best describes the shape of a DNA molecule?



11. Name three ways the RNA is chemically different from DNA.



12. What is replication?



13. What are the three steps involved in DNA replication.



14. How many strands of DNA act as a template?



15. What causes the DNA molecule to untwist and ”unzip”?



16. Where does replication occur?



17. What is true about the two new strands of DNA at the end of replication?



18. Why and when does DNA replication occur?



19. What is transcription?



20. What are the four steps involved in RNA transcription?



21. How many strands of DNA act as a template?



22. What are the three different types of RNA?



23. What is the function of mRNA?



24. Why is mRNA necessary?



25. What is translation?



26. What are the five steps involved in translation?



27. What is made during translation?



28. What is the function of rRNA?



29. What is a codon?



30. What is the function of tRNA?



31. What is an anticodon?



32. What type of bond forms between amino acids?



33. What codon starts the process of translation? Stops it?



34. What is a mutation?



35. What is the difference between a point and a frameshift mutation?



36. Which is worse, point or frameshift? Explain why.



37. What is a deletion mutation?



38. What is an insertion mutation?



39. What is an inversion mutation?



40. What is a translocation mutation?



41. What causes a non-disjunction mutation?



42. What is trisomy? Monosomy?

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  1. First of all, we don't do your homework for you.

    Even so, since this is not my area of expertise, I searched Google under the key word "nucleotide" to get these possible sources:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleotide
    http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/nucleotide.html
    http://www.genome.gov/glossary.cfm?key=nucleotide
    http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/micro/gallery/nucleotides/nucleotides.html

    You can do the same for your other concepts. In the future, you can find the information you desire more quickly, if you use appropriate key words to do your own search.

    I hope this helps. Thanks for asking.

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  2. 1. phosphate sugars and a nitrogen containing base

    2.ribosugars?

    3. Adenine thymine cytosine and guanine

    4.

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  3. This is about all i know.
    1. phosphate sugars and a nitrogen containing base

    2.ribosugars?

    3. Adenine thymine cytosine and guanine

    4.

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  4. adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), or thymine (T).

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  5. 1. a phosphate group, a 5-carbon sugar, and a nitrogenous base
    2. deoxyribose
    3. The bases used in DNA are adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T).
    4. The sides of the ladder are made of alternating sugar and phosphate molecules. The sugar is deoxyribose. The rungs of the ladder are pairs of 4 types of nitrogen bases. Two of the bases are purines- adenine and guanine.
    5.The bond formed between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of an adjacent nucleotide is a covalent bond. A covalent bond is the sharing of electrons between atoms. A covalent bond is stronger than a hydrogen bond (hydrogen bonds hold pairs of nucleotides together on opposite strands in DNA).
    6. They showed that alternating deoxyribose and phosphate molecules form the twisted uprights of the DNA ladder. The rungs of the ladder are formed by complementary pairs of nitrogen bases — A always paired with T and G always paired with C.
    7. These bases make up the 'rungs' of the ladder, and are attached to the backbone where the deoxyribose (sugar) molecules are located.
    8.The rules of base pairing explain the phenomenon that whatever the amount of adenine (A) in the DNA of an organism, the amount of thymine (T) is the same (Chargaff's rule). Similarly, whatever the amount of guanine (G), the amount of cytosine (C) is the same.
    9. The nitrogen bases are held together by hydrogen bonds: adenine and thymine form two hydrogen bonds; cytosine and guanine form three hydrogen bonds.
    10. he DNA molecule is shaped like a ladder that is twisted into a coiled configuration called a double helix. The nitrogen bases form the rungs of the ladder and are arranged in pairs, which are connected to each other by chemical bonds.

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  6. I hope this answers your first 10 qeustions

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  7. What are the three parts of a nucleotide

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