An aqueous solution is 8.50% ammonium chloride, NH4Cl, by mass. The density of the solution is 1.024g/mL. Calculate the molality, mole fraction, and molarity of NH4Cl in the solution.

I know the formulas needed but I'm not sure where to start.

M = moles solute/1 L solution

m = moles solute/1 kg solvent

x = moles solute/total moles of solution

Can I have some help please with where to get started on this problem? :) Thanks!

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  1. I would start with 8.50% NH4Cl which you know means 8.50 g NH4Cl per 100 g soln.
    You know the density so you can convert 100 g soln to volume (mL) and convert 8.50 g NH4Cl to moles. That gives you an easy M = moles/L soln.
    Next I would look at the % soln again. You know that is 8.50 g NH4Cl/(8.50g NH4Cl + 91.50g H2O). You know moles from the earlier step so this give you an easy m = moles/kg solvent.
    Now that you know moles NH4Cl and kg solvent, you can convert to moles solvent and get X from that for NH4Cl (and X for H2O if you want it).

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  2. Thanks so much for the feedback! I think I figured the answers out! :)

    Molarity = 0.161 M

    Molality = 1.74 m

    Mole Fraction = 1.57E-4 moles NH4Cl

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  3. Made a mistake.

    ****Mole Fraction = 0.0303 moles NH4CL

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  4. I obtained 1.627 which rounds to 1.63 for M. I used 53.49 for the molar mass NH4Cl.
    I agree with the other two answers.

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  5. 0.o345

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