Again... writerteach. told me that u guys put the website on a new server and lost info. Well here are my questions again...which I posted before. Thanks for ur help on the previous post.

1. The disposal of used batteries is a problem since they often contain poisonous metals or metals that can cause dangerous reactions. At the present time, the incinerators at Swan Hills cannot cope with battery disposal and there is no good economical way to extract metals out of batteries. Complete the following.

a. In a paragraph, give at least three things that could be done with used batteries.
For this question I only have one or two examples can u give me two more? Thanks.
My answer:
Collection center that will deliver the lead acid batteries to a smelter or recycling facility
Household batteries such as alkaline and dry cell batteries that cannot be recycled may be discarded in the garbage. Nickel Cadmium (Ni-Cad), Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH), Lithuim Ion (LiLon) and small lead batteries under 2 lb. (rechargable) batteries can be recycled free of charge. Alkaline batteries can be safely disposed of with normal household waste. Due to concerns about mercury in the municipal solid waste stream, Duracell has voluntarily eliminated all of the added mercury from its alkaline batteries since 1993 — while maintaining the performance you demand. Our alkaline batteries are composed primarily of common metals — steel, zinc and manganese — and do not pose a health or environmental risk during normal use or disposal. Proven cost-effective and environmentally safe recycling processes are not yet universally available for alkaline batteries. Buy products that don’t require batteries, such as kinetic watches and solar powered calculators. Find out when your town has a collection for household hazardous
waste or encourage your town officials to schedule one. Return car batteries for recycling. Most service stations will accept car batteries, especially if you’re
buying a new one from them. Since their development over 250 years ago, batteries have remained among the most expensive energy sources, and their manufacture consumes many valuable resources and often involves hazardous chemicals. For this reason many areas now have battery recycling services available to recover some of the more toxic (and sometimes valuable) materials from used batteries.

b. Which solution is best for the environment?
No idea??

c. Which solution is cheapest?
No idea??

7. What is the concentration of the aqueous solutions for the standard cells?
The conditions at which this is measured is when the temperature is 25 C, any gas will be adjusted at a pressure of 1 atm, and any ion concentration will be maintained at 1 Molar.

11. How does an application of a paint, or a plastic coating, or a metal plating to a piece of iron prevent the corrosion of the iron?
My answer:
When metal plating is done it is more easily oxidized at the anode where corrosion occurs.

12. A student is asked to choose a metal that would serve as a sacrificial anode for an expensive nickel component. Which metal would be appropriate? Explain your choice.

I have no idea!

Can u please help me on these 3 questions that would be great!

Magnesium is a popular choice for an sacrificial anode material. It loses an electron more readily that iron or copper or nickel, and will prevent the corrosion of more expensive metal components. See

I answered some of the questions before and I will try to do them again.
1a. The disposal methods you have are good. Lance provided some web sites that may list other methods of disposal and perhaps he can give you those sites again. However, you can access them by going to and typing in battery disposal.

b. I think the obvious answer here is to either (i) recycle or (ii) eliminate the hazardous material from the manufacturing process.

c. cheapest to whom?? and in terms of what?? The cheapest method for the consumer, at least initially, is to trash it. But will that be so in the next 100 years if we destroy the environment in the process? Eliminating it from the manuracturing process sounds great but whether it is cheaper or not all depends upon the materials used to replace the offending material. Forming teams in the city/county/parish/state etc to collect hazardous material depends upon how many people in the commmunity are willing to volunteer for this service. Also, if the city/state/county is involved, they usually have PAID employees helping and I don't know how to estimate the cost for that. In addition note that the COLLECTION process is the easy part and that only takes care of getting all this stuff together. It doesn't address disposing of it at all.

7. I don't know what you mean by a standard cell. There are standard calomel cells often used in the lab and those are rather well defined. The standard hydrogen cell is 1 molar H^+ and 1 atm pressure. I have looked, to no avail, for the concentration of the electrolytes in flashlight batteries (actually most of these are primary cells and not batteries) and other dry cells. A good deal of information on the chemicals used in the paste but nothing on the concentration. For lead-acid storage batteries (these really are batteries), the specific gravity for a fully charged battery (the electrolyte is H2SO4 and water) is 1.25 to 1.285. That translates into approximately 35% to 38% H2SO4 by mass. I hope this is enough informtion to answer your question. Just take the part that helps.

11. I don't think your initial response to this question is correct. When the statement is made about a COATING, then I suspect we are simply keeping the oxygen/water vapor in the air away from the metal. That is what a coating of paint, or a plating of a metal, or coating with a plactic, does. I don't think it has anything to do with "a sacrificial eletrode."

Item 12 deals with sacrificial anodes and drwls has already answered that part of your question.

I am sorry that the initial responses were lost but perhaps we have been able to reconstruct most of it for you. Good luck.

Thanks again...and its all good!

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