All you really need to know is two things.
1. Can you add and subtract up to 2.
2. Do you know the mass and charge of particles?
A positron is a + electron, and we show it as 1e^0 where the 1 is the charge and the ^0 is the mass of zero. The subscripts must and the superscripts must add. The number appearing before is the subscript and the number with a caret after is a superscript.
16Si^26 ==> 1e^0 + 15X^26.
Note that 16 on the left equals 1 +15 on the right.(I got the 15 by 16-1=15). The 26 on the left equals ) + 26 on the right. I don't know what X is, now I look on the periodic table and I see that element number 15 is P and I can erase X and replace it with P.
For electron capture, we have
11Na^22 + -1e^0 ==> I will let you do this one. Just make the numbers on the right add to those on the left.
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