ap chemistry

there's a few questions I have...actually it's a bit more than a few...
1. Identify the carbon atom(s) in the structure shown that has (have) each of the following hybridizations: a. sp3, b. sp, c. sp2
2. Draw all the possible noncyclic structural isomers of C5H10. Name each compound. (I don't understand the cyclic part at all...)

3. What are the approximate bond angles a. about a double bonded carbon atom in an alkene, b. about a triply bonded carbon atom in an alkyne?

4. What are the characteristic hybrd orbitals employed by a. carbon in an alkane, b. carbon in a double bond in an alkene, c. carbon in the benzene ring, d. carbon in a triple bond in an alkyne? --I know what the hybrid orbitals are but I don't know how to figure out how to know what the orbitals are...

5. Write a balanced chemical equation for the substitution reaction of CL2 with para-dichlorobenzene in the presence of FeCl3 as a catalyst.

6. Write a series of reactions leading to para-bromoethylbenzene, beginning with benzene ad using other reagents as needed. What isomeric side products might also be formed?

7. Draw all the distinct geometric isomers of 2,4-hexadeine.

8. Describe the intermediate that is thought to form in the addition of a hydrogen halide to an alkene, using cyclo-hexene as the alkene in your description.

9. The rate law for addition of Br2 to an alkene is first order in Br2 and first order in the alkene. Does this fact prve that the mechanism of addition of Br2 to an alkene proceeds in the same manner as for addition of HBr? Explain.

10. Write a balanced chemical equation using condensed structural formulas for the saponification(base hydrolysis) of a. methyl propionate, b. phenyl acetate

11. Write the condensed structural formula for each o the following compounds: a. 2-butanol, b. 1,2-ethanediol, c. methyl formate, d. diethyl ketone, e. diethyl ether

12. (same question as above): a. 3,3-dichlorobutyraldehyde, b. methyl phenyl ketone, c. para-bromobenzoic acd, d. methyl-trans-2-butenyl ether, e. N, N-diamethyl-benzamide

13. Does 3-chloro-3-methylhexane have optical isomers? Why or why not?

that's sooo many questions...but...this stuff is just HARD and without a teacher it's really difficult....:(

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  1. The topics of the questions you are asking are not covered adequately even in a college General Chemistry textbook. An Organic Chemistry textbook would be more helpful for most of the 13 questions.
    A good starting point for organic chemistry is the online textbook, General Organic and Biochemistry by James K. Hardy here:
    Start with the chapter on Alkanes.
    Below are comments or partial answers with no explanations. Even that took far too long. We merely assist here. We do not do in depth tutoring, teaching, or providing answers. We assume you already know the basics in the topics of your questions.
    The answers to #1, #3, and #4 you should be able to find on your own in almost any chemistry textbook.
    #2. The open chain isomers of C5H10 are
    1-pentene, cis-2-pentene, trans-2-pentene, 2-methyl-1-butene, 2-methyl-2-butene. We can't draw these here.
    #5 and #6 involve substitution reactions on the benzene ring. That is a topic you need to study after studying substitution reactions of alkanes.
    #7. The answer is cis-cis-, cis-trans-, and trans-trans- isomers of 2,4-haxadiene. It would take too long to explain. You can start by studying cis- and trans- isomerism.
    #8. Possibly a carbonium ion with the X- ion linking to the positive carbon atom. See my next comment.
    #9. You need to study reaction mechanisms for different types of addition reactions with an alkene. This is a fairly advanced topic even for an Organic Chemistry class.
    #10. This has to do with the reaction of an ester with a strong base, such as NaOH. It is also called hydrolysis of an ester.
    #11. CH3CH(OH)CH2CH3, CH2(OH)CH2(OH), HCOOCH3, CH3C(CO)CH3, CH3CH2-O-CH2CH3. These can be drawn better with the functional group off the carbon chain.
    #12. (Similar to #11)
    #13. Yes (four different atoms or groups attached to carbon #3)

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