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Oligarchy dominated Latin America’s political structure from 1900 to 1939. At the height of the European industrialization, Latin America became Europe’s main provider for raw materials. Mexico, for instance, provided Europe and North America with hemp, copper, and zinc. By 1910, Latin America was being integrated ever more strongly into the world of capitalist economy, given the role of “peripheral producer” of primary goods and consumer of industrialized goods from the developed nations at the center of the system. Hence, Latin American countries produced raw material in exchange for European manufactured goods, further, embedded the pattern of economic control by foreign countries.
This pattern already established due to colonialism, continued, and Latin America became more dependent on foreign country’s economy for its prosperity. However, in the minds of many political leaders, this new economic order was reasonable and endorsed, as a result of the growing dominance of liberal ideology in most parts of Latin America. In fact, due to the new ideology, throughout this phase of free-trade, political parties were established. Many political liberals who favored less centralized state rule formed liberal parties, while the traditional agricultural interests and pro church conservatives formed conservative parties.
This period reveals democratization being adopted by the traditional elite social-class. In fact, between 1900 and 1939 oligarchic regimes were widely common, among Latin America about 40% of the time. Local elites further repressed the indigenous population and middle- class groups, by completely excluding them systematically from the national political life. Chile, for instance, although it had more than one oligarchic party, competition between upper-class factions was highly competitive, since literacy requirement limited votes. Further, elite’s domination of the political system, at the same time, replaced the dominance of the local caudillo. For example, iron fisted dictator Porfirio Diaz dominated Mexico’s politics. Though, by this time, the largest classes in most countries were the urban working class, which included formal and non formal actors. As these new classes were joined by new segments of the upper class tied to industrialization and commercialization and increased involvement of and foreign investor’s new political forces were mobilized in developing new political coalitions. These issues led the development of the Mexican revolution, the first great revolutionary movements of twentieth first century.

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  1. Stream of consciousness -- http://www.tnellen.com/cybereng/lit_terms/stream.html -- is a literary device that is used primarily in fiction.

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