Psychology

posted by Meredith

Hello, I am in need of help with a psychology question. Here is the information that was provided:

Psychologists use field observations, laboratory experiments, and other methods to gather data relevant to their research questions. When sufficient data have been collected, the researchers analyze the data in order to make inferences about the research topic. The focus of data analysis is the identification of relationships between the various elements of the data. Researchers look for the following types of relationships.

The relationship of necessary condition.

A necessary condition is a condition without which a certain event or effect cannot occur. For example, for a procedural memory of a skill to occur, you must first learn the skill. You may not always remember a skill you have learned, but you can never remember it if you have not learned it. There are four possible relationships (R) between a necessary condition (A) and a certain effect (B).

R.1. If A occurs, then B may or may not occur.

R.2. If A does not occur, then B cannot occur.

R.3. If A occurs, then B must have occurred.

R.4. If A does not occur, then B may or may not have occurred.

The relationship of sufficient condition.

A sufficient condition is a condition that can produce a certain effect. The same effect, however, can be produced by other conditions. For example, brain injury can cause amnesia, but amnesia can also be caused by other conditions. There are four possible relationships between a sufficient condition C and a certain effect D.

R.1. If C occurs, then D occurs.

R.2. If C does not occur, then D may or may not occur.

R.3. If D occurs, then C may or may not have occurred.

R.4. If D does not occur, then C did not occur.

The relationship of necessary and sufficient condition.

If all necessary and sufficient conditions EF occur, then a certain effect G will always occur. If these conditions do not occur, then the effect will not occur. For example, to create memory of an incident, the brain must encode information. Without encoding, there will be no memory of the event. The following are true.

R.1. If EF occurs, then G will occur.

R.2. If EF does not occur, then G will not occur.

R.3. If G occurs, then EF has occurred.

R.4. If G does not occur, then EF has not occurred.

QUESTION 1:
Suppose experimental data showed that memory reliability has been increased by 12 percent in people taking medication X and also has been increased in people who have had training in using mnemonic devices. Using DX for taking the drug and IM for result of improved memory, write a statement that best describes the relationship.
**My answer=If DX occurs, IM will occur.

QUESTION 2
Todd ate two bowls of popcorn while studying for his psychology test. The next day he got an A on the test. Can he conclude that eating lots of popcorn is a necessary condition for memorizing psychology information? Why or why not? 
**My answer=He can conclude that eating 2 bowls of popcorn is a necessary condition in order to obtain memorize psychological information. This is possible because of one of the relationships between a necessary condition and a certain effect being that if A (eating 2 bowls of popcorn) occurs, B (memorizing psychological information) may or may not occur.

QUESTION 3
True or false? If data shows that saying a number over and over is a necessary and sufficient condition for committing the number to memory, then people who want to memorize a phone number must repeat it several times. 
**My answer=This is true because it exhibits the relationship of necessary and sufficient condition. Regarding necessary condition, if A (saying numbers repeatedly) occurs, then B (memorizing the numbers) will occur. Regarding sufficient condition, if B (memorizing the numbers) does not occur, then A (saying numbers repeatedly) did not occur.



Am I correct? Thank you so much!!

  1. Meredith

    I realized I did #3 incorrectly
    CORRECTION:
    This is true because it exhibits the relationship of necessary and sufficient condition. In order for the brain to create a memory, it must encode the information. To maintain the memory of information, repetition is necessary. If A (saying numbers repeatedly) occurs, then B (memorizing the numbers) will occur.

  2. PsyDAG

    1. However, MD also leads to IM.

    2. See later post

    3. Agree

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