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In Chapter 2 of the textbook, the author describes meanings for the concept of socio-economic class and analyzes how perceptions of justice may be influenced by class distinctions in American society (see Section 2.4). He also references the related views of two provocative and thought-provoking contemporary scholars. Robert H. Frank provides an economic analysis, and Charles Murray offers a socio-cultural interpretation. In this discussion, you will summarize the perspective of one of these scholars and evaluate its relevance to understanding how class influences beliefs about justice. Review the questions below and select one (only one) of these scholars as the focus of your initial post.
a.Robert H. Frank. Debates about distributive justice among economic classes often characterize the outlook of the rich as libertarian, the views of the poor as egalitarian, and the perspective of the middle-class as utilitarian. This over-simplified framework may translate into conflicting ideologies about the role of government in achieving economic justice. On one extreme are libertarian proponents of the free market and on the other extreme are egalitarian proponents of socialism. In the middle are a variety of “mixed” approaches to the role of government in the economy that promote utilitarian concepts of distributive justice – the greatest good for the greatest possible number of people.
Cornell University economist Robert Frank, in his recent provocative book, The Darwin Economy: Liberty, Competition, and the Common Good, rejects – but not completely – both the libertarian and egalitarian extremes. Instead, he advocates a new role for government that encourages individuals toward self-interested economic behavior that also advances the economic welfare of all members of the community.
Summarize Frank’s arguments – both his criticism of the libertarian and egalitarian extremes. Then, analyze his proposals on how to achieve greater economic justice for the whole community. Finally, evaluate the relevance or usefulness of his views for understanding how economic class differences may influence perceptions of distributive justice. Do you think his views may be appreciated as just by rich people? Poor people? Middle-class people? Explain your conclusion.
To help you successfully complete this discussion, review the following resources in the order they are listed: ◾Darwin, the market whiz
◾Robert Frank on "the Darwin economy"
◾Robert Frank: "The Darwin economy: Liberty, competition, and the common good" [Radio broadcast]
b.Charles Murray. Commutative justice rests on a shared understanding of the rights and responsibilities of all parties to the basic social contract that holds a society together. On one level, the U.S. Constitution might be characterized as part of the social contract on which the American political system is based. But on a deeper, more fundamental, level, the social contract includes shared values which shape our expectations of others and ourselves with respect to morality, culture, self-reliance, and collective responsibility.
Charles Murray, a political scientist at the conservative American Enterprise Institute, calls into question the relevance of the social contract which he sees as the source of “the founding virtues” on which American civic life depends. In his recent provocative book, Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960-2010, he argues that “Our nation is coming apart at the seams” – “not ethnic seams, but the seams of class” (Confessore, 2012). He focuses on what he sees as the social and moral collapse of the white working class and the growing cultural gap between them and the white upper class.
In your initial post, summarize Murray’s description of the white working class and the white upper class. Also, analyze the basis for his pessimistic outlook about government’s ability to solve this problem and re-invigorate America’s social contract. Finally, evaluate the relevance or usefulness of his views for understanding how socio-economic class differences may influence perceptions of commutative justice. Do the white working class and the white upper class no longer have a shared understanding of the rights and responsibilities of the basic social contract? Explain your conclusion.
To help you successfully complete this discussion, review the following resources in the order they are listed: ◾Tramps like them: Charles Murray examines the white working class in ‘Coming Apart’
◾Can the working class be saved?
◾Charles Murray on white America [Radio broadcast]
Your initial post should be at least 300 words in length. Support your claims with examples from two of the required resources and properly cite any references.
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