Psychology - Social Problems

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Please check my answers.

1. When considering marital separation and divorce as a social problem, an effective approach might be to:
__x_a. develop counseling options for couples in crisis.
____b. focus on problems with the institution of marriage itself.
____c. develop anger-management programs for abusive spouses.
____d. recommend legislation to make divorce more difficult.

2. Most sociologists no longer support the social disorganization theory because:
____a. experimental research does not support this theory.
____b. the term "disorganization" is ambiguous.
____c. the theory does not consider the effects of norms on social behavior.
_x__d. the theory does not apply to all social problems.

3. According to the social change theory:
____a. change occurs when various cultural subgroups come into conflict.
____b. social change can be positive.
_x__c. change occurs when norms, attitudes, and other aspects of culture are altered.
____d. a theoretical base for understanding the perpetuation of social problems is developed.

4. Differences in perspective between the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the American Nazis are best represented by:
_x__a. the value conflict theory.
____b. anomie.
____c. the differential association theory.
____d. the labeling theory.

5. Which one of the following statements is NOT an assumption of the deviance theory?
____a. Problems are a result of particular violations of the norms.
____b. Primary deviance involves integration of deviant behavior into the individual's self-concept.
____c. Behavior defined as acceptable at one time may be unacceptable at another.
__x_d. Deviant behavior does not reflect individual pathology.

6. According to the differential association theory:
____a. members of minority groups are labeled as deviant more often than are non-minorities.
__x_b. we primarily accept standards of behavior modeled by our parents.
____c. individuals learn deviant behavior through intensive interaction, and the opportunity to behave illegally must present itself.
____d. deviant behavior holds a greater attraction than non-deviant behavior.

7. The social structure theory explains gender inequality in light of:
__x_a. a class structure that oppresses women.
____b. a continuation of a pattern developed in hunter-gatherer cultures.
____c. labeling of women as inferior intellectually.
____d. reaction against the women's movement.

8. Social problems. May be viewed as contradictions because:
____a. the best solution may not be evident to everyone.
____b. norms and values may have a contradictory effect on each other.
_x__c. differing phenomena exist within the same social system.
____d. many social problems have thus far been irresolvable.

9. Studies of quality of life indicate overall that:
____a. most Americans perceive that their quality of life has improved.
_x__b. economic well-being is most important to quality of life.
____c. a connection between social problems and quality of life is seldom perceived.
____d. most Americans agree on what is important to quality of life.

10. Which one of the following statements best represents American's current perception of the problem of poverty?
_x__a. Poverty is perceived as a more important issue than it was in the 1970s and 1980s.
____b. Poverty is seen as primarily an individual problem.
____c. Poverty is seen as primarily a problem for state and local governments to resolve.
____d. Poverty is not viewed as a major problem by the majority of Americans.

11. The fallacy of dramatic instance is difficult to counter because:
____a. dramatic people are hard to argue with.
____b. negative dramatic experiences are most memorable.
____c. it is based on popular slogans or myths.
__x_d. the fallacy arises from individual experience.

12. The belief that the terrorists acts of September 11 were unavoidable, given American policy in the Middle East, best represents the fallacy of:
____a. appeal to prejudice.
____b. composition.
_x__c. retrospective determinism.
____d. non sequitur.

13. The belief that alcoholics and drug addicts are morally weak is most representative of the fallacy of:
____a. appeal to prejudice.
____b. personal attack.
_x__c. circular reasoning.
____d. retrospective determinism.

14. Scientific research is viewed as rational and empirical because it:
____a. involves a variation on experimental design.
____b. focuses on the relationship between variables manipulated by a researcher.
____c. is designed to offset fallacies of thinking.
__x_d. comes to conclusions based on logic and facts.

15. A major characteristic of survey research is:
__x_a. information gathering from a sample of a larger population.
____b. the use of tests of significance to analyze results.
____c. infrequent application to major social issues.
____d. the use of records such as those of the U.S. Census Bureau to develop surveys.

16. the major reason to use a statistical test of significance is to:
_x__a. determine the probability that conclusions occurred due to chance.
____b. determine whether the median or mean is the best statistic to consider.
____c. organize data into a frequency distribution.
____d. utilize the most scientifically valid method for reporting purposes.

17. Extreme scores will affect:
____a. the median but not the mean.
x___b. the mean but not the median
____c. both the median and the mean.
____d. neither the median nor the mean.

18. Which one of the following is NOT characteristic of the experimental method?
____a. Independent variables are manipulated by the experimental.
_x__b. the experiment is designed to confirm or deny an hypothesis.
____c. Different dependent variables are identified for the various experimental groups.
____d. The experimenter uses an experimental and a control group.

19. Which one of the following elements is NOT included in participant observation?
____a. Social interaction with the study's subjects.
_x__b. Use of tests of significance
____c. Forman and informal interviewing
____d. Direct observation of events

20. The major conclusion of Horowitz's (1982) study Hispanic gangs was:
_x__a. status and satisfaction was achieved by continuation of group membership into adulthood.
____b. gang membership supported the differential association theory.
____c. attitudes of gang members represented anomie.
____d. gang membership declined as the members married and involved with their families.

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