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The passage of the Civil War amendments—the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments—did not end discrimination of African Americans. However, the Supreme Court has relied on these amendments in deciding civil rights cases such as the case of Regents of University of California v. Bakke (1978).

a. Identify which provision of the Fourteenth Amendment was applied in Regents of University of California v. Bakke (1978) and explain its relevance.

b. Explain how the cases of Regents of University of California v. Bakke (1978) and Grutter v. Bolinger affected affirmative action programs in colleges and universities and explain the significance of each case.

c. Explain the Court's guidelines for deciding discrimination cases.

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