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An earthquake generates three kinds of waves: surface waves (L waves), which are the slowest and weakest; shear (S) waves, which are transverse waves and carry most of the energy; and pressure (P) waves, which are longitudinal waves and travel the fastest. The speed of P waves is approximately 7.0 km/s, and that of S waves is about 4.0 km/s. Animals seem to feel the P waves. If a dog senses the arrival of P waves and starts barking 23.3 s before an earthquake is felt by humans, approximately how far is the dog from the earthquake’s epicenter?

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