# PHI 103

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PHI 103
Symbolic Logic- write 2 argument in English,one in the form of modus ponens and one in the form of modus tollens.Then write the argument in symbols using sentences letters and truth-functional connectives.

• PHI 103 -

Sometimes people get caught in a “downward spiral,” a case in which something leads to a result which in turn leads to more of the original thing, bringing on more of the result. As the process continues, the result continually gets worse and worse. An example is when people turn to binge eating when depressed, which causes them to put on weight and feel unhealthy, which then makes them more depressed, leading to more overeating, and so on.
The author is mainly concerned with

• PHI 103 -

These are the automatically computed results of your exam. Grades for essay questions, and comments from your instructor, are in the "Details" section below.
Date Taken:
Time Spent: 1 h , 31 min , 47 secs
Points Received: 19 / 25 (76%)
Question Type: # Of Questions: # Correct:
Multiple Choice 25 19
1. Question :
<11{1[2(06)06]}> Reporter: A new campaign finance reform bill being considered by Congress would limit the amount of campaign contributions that political candidates can receive. However, a survey of candidates running for mayor, governor, and senate seats shows that not one of them favors the bill. Clearly, there is no desire among politicians to limit campaign contributions.
Which one of the following points out the flaw in the reporter’s argument above?

Student Answer: The reporter doesn’t indicate the amount that the new bill would limit campaign contributions.
The evidence provided by the reporter suggests that most politicians are in favor of the new bill.
The reporter wrongly assumes that no politician has ever supported a bill intended to limit campaign contributions
The views of candidates currently running for office do not necessarily represent the views of all politicians.

2. Question :
<11{1[4(17)17]}> Mrs. Orlof teaches two history classes, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Yesterday she gave the same test to both classes. Anyone who failed the test must take a retest. Since a greater percentage of students who took the morning test failed the test than students who took the afternoon test, more of Orlof’s morning history students than afternoon history students will have to take the retest.
The conclusion above is not necessarily valid because

Student Answer: more students in the morning class may have passed the test than failed the test
some students may have been absent from both classes
some of the students who passed the afternoon test may have received information about the test from morning students
more students may have taken the test in the afternoon than in the morning

3. Question :
<21{1[2(24)24]}> The average height of members of the high school basketball team is six feet, three inches. Jerry is on the high school basketball team, so Jerry must be taller than six feet.
The argument above is flawed because it confuses

Student Answer: Jerry with other members of the team
the members of one team with the members of another team
people who are six feet three inches tall for people who are exactly six feet tall
an average for the individuals that make up that average.

4. Question :
<11{1[1(19)19]}> All sages provide both wisdom and inspiration. Since Dasha’s speech contained wisdom and greatly inspired her audience, Dasha is a sage.
Which one of the following points out the flaw in the argument above?

Student Answer: Just because Dasha is a sage doesn’t mean that she is always wise and inspirational.
Just because Dasha’s speech provided wisdom and inspiration doesn’t mean that it provided more wisdom than inspiration.
Just because Dasha satisfied two requirements of being a sage doesn’t necessarily mean that she satisfies all the requirements of being a sage.
Just because Dasha provided wisdom and inspiration in a speech doesn’t mean that all sages use speeches to provide wisdom and inspiration.

5. Question :
<11{1[4(23)23]}> People have claimed that Jamie’s paintings have given them the blues. Clearly this cannot be entirely correct, since many of Jamie’s paintings contain no blue at all.
The argument above is flawed because the author

misinterprets a key term
is not a noted painting expert

6. Question :
<11{1[3(02)02]}> Catherine goes to her local movie theater only to see romantic comedies. Since Catherine did not go to the movies yesterday, there is not a romantic comedy playing at her local theater.
The reasoning above is flawed because the evidence

Student Answer: does not suggest that Catherine goes to see every romantic comedy that plays at her local movie theater
implies that Catherine is uninterested in most types of movies
does not indicate whether Catherine watches only romantic comedies at home
suggests that Catherine’s local movie theater hardly ever shows romantic comedies

7. Question :
<21{2[2(12)36]}> Career counselor: It is best for artists to build a practical and safe career that will guarantee them a secure income, and then pursue their art in their spare time. That way, they will be motivated to work hard at their day jobs to support their art making, and both their career and their art will thrive.
Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument?

Student Answer: Some forms of art making are expensive and require a good deal of money to pursue.
Many people who aren’t artists prefer to pursue practical and safe careers.
Having the time and money to make art doesn’t guarantee an artist commercial success.
Splitting time between two pursuits in life often causes both to suffer.

8. Question :
<21{2[1(01)25]}> The untimely death of Professor Hathaway halted his groundbreaking research into the uses of solar power. It therefore appears that Hathaway’s research will not result in practical applications.
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

Student Answer: Professor Hathaway’s research can be used by other scientists to create useful applications.
Not all professors at Professor Hathaway’s university knew that he was conducting research into the uses of solar power.
Officials at Professor Hathaway’s university have refused requests to make Professor Hathaway’s research public.
Researchers at other universities are conducting research into the potential applications of solar power.

9. Question :
<11{2[3(02)26]}> Aron: The two double A batteries in my CD player are dead, so the CD player doesn’t work. My television remote control, which also uses two double A batteries, works fine. So if I move the two batteries from my television remote control to my CD player, the CD player will definitely work.
Aron’s argument is most strengthened if which one of the following is true?

Student Answer: Aron inserted the current batteries in his television remote control two months before he inserted the current batteries in his CD player.
The amount of energy required to power the CD player is not greater than the amount of energy needed to power the television remote control.
Aron has used his television remote control more times than he has used his CD player since inserting the current batteries into each device.
Double A batteries provide less energy than either C batteries or D batteries.

10. Question :
<21{3[2(08)44]}> Surveys show that people who use calorie information to decide which foods to eat consume on average 100 calories less than they would if they didn’t check calorie information before eating. Strangely though, people who use calorie information in this way weigh more on average than people who don’t check calorie information before eating.
Which one of the following, if true, best explains the surprising statistic stated above?

Student Answer: There are fewer people who check calorie information before eating than people who don’t check calorie information before eating.
People who usually check calorie information before eating consume more calories if they stop checking.
Some people who check calorie information before eating don’t consume any fewer calories than they would if they didn’t check.
People with a weight problem are most likely to check calorie information before eating.

11. Question :
<11{3[1(03)39]}> Last season at City Opera House, far more people attended opera X than opera Y. However, opera Y generated far greater net profits for City Opera House than did opera X.
Each of the following could directly explain the result indicated above EXCEPT:

Student Answer: a difference in the ticket prices of operas X and Y
a difference in the operating expenses of operas X and Y
a difference in the subject matters of operas X and Y
a difference in the merchandise sales associated with operas X and Y

12. Question :
<21{4[3(02)46]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
conductor : orchestra

teacher : principal
producer : movie
director : cast

13. Question :
<11{4[2(06)50]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
gavel : judge

symphony : composer
stop sign : driver
ruler : math

14. Question :
<21{4[1(10)54]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
heavy : weight

feather : scale
hot : temperature
color : size

15. Question :
<11{5[1(05)61]}> Memmie: The greater the population near a restaurant, the more potential customers it has and the greater chance its popularity will spread through word-of-mouth. O’Sullivans Restaurant just opened in the very densely populated town of Redville, so its chances for success are great.
Sam: But the more people living in an area, the more restaurants there are in that area, so the more competition each one faces. There are twelve other restaurants serving the people of Redville.
Memmie and Sam seem to disagree about whether

Student Answer: O’Sullivans will fail in its first few months
O’Sullivans will serve a different kind of food than the other restaurants in Redville
the high population of Redville ensures O’Sullivan’s a great chance for success
word-of-mouth about a restaurant can spread in a densely populated town like Redville

16. Question :
<21{5[1(03)59]}> Barney: Last winter, I slipped on the outside stairs of PineTree Café and broke my leg. My fall was caused by ice on the stairs that the restaurant failed to remove. Since the restaurant clearly did not provide a safe atmosphere for its customers, I am justified in taking it to court.
Lydia: Unwarranted lawsuits are sweeping the country—lawsuits that have no legal merit and are brought simply to make lawyers and their clients rich. If this trend continues, soon our legal system will be swamped to the point where it won’t be able to administer justice to people who truly deserve it. You therefore should drop your case against PineTree Café.
The speakers above appear to disagree on which one of the following points?

Student Answer: Barney is likely to win his case against Pinetree Café.
Barney’s lawsuit against Pinetree Café is unwarranted.
Many unwarranted lawsuits are sweeping the country.
The legal system will soon be unable to administer justice to people who deserve it.

17. Question :
<11{6[2(03)67]}> Only circus animals with a clean bill of health will perform in today’s exhibition. A monkey, a poodle, and a horse will perform in today’s exhibition. No circus animals with a clean bill of health were prescribed medications this week.
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true on the basis of them?

Student Answer: The monkey, poodle, and horse are the only animals performing in today’s circus exhibition.
No circus animals were prescribe medications this week.
No more than two circus animals have a clean bill of health.
Neither the monkey nor the horse performing in today’s circus exhibition were prescribed medications this week.

18. Question :
<21{6[3(08)72]}> Some drugs combat obesity or alcohol addiction by turning off pleasure centers in the brain. However, if the dosage is too high, there’s a risk that people taking them will be plunged into depression.
The statements above, if true, support which one of the following assertions?

Student Answer: It is useless to try to treat obesity or alcohol addiction through drugs.
All drugs, if taken at too high a dosage, pose the risk that the people taking them will be plunged into depression.
The benefits of a medication may be at least somewhat offset by its side effects.
Drugs that affect pleasure centers in the brain are often taken at dosages considered to be too high.

19. Question :
<7{6[3(02)66]}> In a survey of 10 film historians, half voted for Nosferatu as the greatest vampire film ever made, and the other half voted for Dracula. However, when asked which lead vampire character they considered more charismatic, all of the film critics chose Dracula over Nosferatu.
Based on the information above, it must be true that for some film critics, their feelings about the charisma of the lead character

Student Answer: is the least important factor they consider when comparing two films
is the most important factor they consider when comparing two films
is not the most important factor they consider when comparing two films
is the only factor they consider when comparing two films

20. Question :
<11{7[2(03)79]}> Looking to increase the profits of his lemonade stand, Johann doubled the price of a cup of lemonade from 25 cents to 50 cents. This clearly shows Johann’s lack of business sense, for now he’ll almost certainly sell fewer cups at the new price and therefore make less money than before.
The argument above assumes that

Student Answer: Johann is looking to double the profits of his lemonade stand
the price increase will likely put Johann out of business
profits from the price increase will not offset the money lost when fewer cups are sold
even if Johann sells more cups at the new price than he did at the old price, he’ll still lose money on the lemonade stand

21. Question :
<21{7[1(04)80]}> A company can either invest in employee training seminars or update its computer network. Since updating the computer network would result in more measurable benefits, the company would be best off updating its computer network.
The argument above assumes that

Student Answer: investing in employee training seminars would yield negative results for the company
the more measurable a benefit, the greater value that benefit has to a company
the employee training seminars would focus on teaching employees to use the updated computer network
the benefit of the company investing in employee training seminars cannot be measured at all

22. Question :
<11{7[3(08)84]}> The president spoke to 19 congressmen from Texas to encourage them to vote for a bill. Since four of the 19 congressmen went on to vote for the bill, it is clear that the president persuaded those four to vote the way they did.
The argument above assumes that

Student Answer: the bill will not pass because a majority of Texas congressmen did not vote for it
the Texas congressmen who voted against the bill were persuaded by someone other than the president to vote the way they did
the president did not try to influence the votes of any congressmen outside of Texas
the four Texas congressmen who voted for the bill were against it before they spoke to the president

23. Question :
<11{8[1(10)98]}> Sometimes people get caught in a “downward spiral,” a case in which something leads to a result which in turn leads to more of the original thing, bringing on more of the result. As the process continues, the result continually gets worse and worse. An example is when people turn to binge eating when depressed, which causes them to put on weight and feel unhealthy, which then makes them more depressed, leading to more overeating, and so on.
The author is mainly concerned with

Student Answer: convincing people not to overeat
explaining the process of the “downward spiral”
showing how overeating can lead to depression
showing how some processes lead to surprising results

24. Question :
<11{8[3(02)90]}> Whereas many industries suffer during economic recessions, the art industry does well. Some think the reason is that artists feed off the anxiety and uncertainty during recessions to produce inspired works. Others think that recessions, while harmful to most people, produce a handful of very rich people willing to pay very high prices for artworks, driving up the value of the art market as a whole.
The author of the passage above is primarily interested in

Student Answer: providing evidence that the art industry does well during recessions
presenting reasons for why the art industry does well during recessions
discussing the types of artworks that sell best during recessions
describing the effect that art has on the economy

25. Question :
<21{8[1(07)95]}> Political science professor: Many people insist that the Internet is revolutionizing the political process. They argue that Internet debates and online political polls and chat rooms give people greater access to political information. And they’re right that online political chatter increases daily. But offering or reading anonymous online opinions does not by itself make for active political participation. In the past one would attend a rally, protest, or town meeting to engage in real politics. Today, people sit passively in front of computer screens under the illusion that they are connecting with their fellow citizens.
Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the professor’s argument?

Student Answer: Internet debates and online political polls and chat rooms give people greater access to political information.
Political organizations of the past bear no resemblance to the political organizations of today.
While the Internet has made more political content available, meaningful political involvement has decreased.
The Internet has revolutionized the political process because it has allowed many more political viewpoints to be expressed.

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