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1. How did the rulers of the Canyon peoples deal with the environmental challenges that their region presented?

A. They allowed high levels of citizen participation in the running of their local communities.
B. They developed a remarkable level of exchange with the Mississippian cultures to the east.
C. They peacefully incorporated neighboring peoples into their system.
D. They adopted harsh military methods.

2. The most important outcome of the Mongol peace was the

A. spread of Western ideas to the East.
B. spread of Islam.
C. transfer of goods and technology from the East to the West.
D. establishment of a stable, coherent government across Eurasia

3. The great Muslim historian Ibn Khaldun saw history as a struggle between

A. different religious groups.
B. merchants and farmers.
C. rich and poor.
D. nomads and settled peoples

4. Which of the following is an example of new economic divisions in the European peasantry that began to occur during the fourteenth century?

A. Peasants living east of the Elbe River became freer.
B. Peasants living west of the Elbe River became freer.
C. Peasants throughout Europe became poorer.
D. Peasants living in the Balkans became freer.

5. The power of the state increased in Western Europe because of improvements in

A. military technology.
B. philosophies of government.
C. communications.
D. relations with the church.

6. A group of northern European port cities organized themselves into what came to be called the

A. Hanseatic League.
B. Knights Templar.
C. Commercial League of North Europe.
D. League of Lubeck.

7. The most important contribution the Mongols made to encouraging trade along the Silk Roads was

A. building a permanent road.
B. providing security.
C. building permanent inns for travelers.
D. lowering taxes for merchants

8. A period of global cooling from the fourteenth to the nineteenth century is historically referred to as

A. nominal cyclical cooling.
B. the Little Ice Age.
C. the Celsius effect.
D. the Fahrenheit effect

9. Which of the following practices did the Ottomans use to strengthen their state?

A. Missionaries were sent to remote areas to generate wealth.
B. The practice of religions other than Islam was forbidden.
C. Gifts were given to those who converted to Islam.
D. Christian children were enslaved and trained as mercenaries

10. As a result of his stay in Cairo, Mansa Musa caused

A. West African cuisine to be introduced into Egypt.
B. the price of gold to plummet.
C. his slaves to be freed on the stipulation that they converted to Islam.
D. the city to revolt against its ruler.

11. To find new territory for a growing population, the Song rulers

A. purchased lands from neighboring peoples.
B. colonized underpopulated areas to the southwest.
C. sent people to unpopulated regions to the north.
D. conquered territories by military force

12. One of the benefits that the Mongols brought to Russian lands was

A. defense against German adventurers.
B. the introduction of paper currency.
C. lower taxes.
D. new farming technologies

13. Within the Islamic Empire, the Turkic people

A. acted as a powerful military shield.
B. were educated people who administered the realm.
C. were completely integrated into the Arabic world.
D. were mainly concerned with trade and commerce.

14. How did powerful families of Japan like the Fujiwara legitimate their power at court?

A. Through military victories over enemies like the Taira
B. Through the support of Buddhist monks
C. By gaining more wealth than others
D. By marrying their daughters into the imperial family

15. Zheng He's achievements include

A. the discovery of North America.
B. establishment of trade agreements with European explorers.
C. reformation of the Confucian bureaucracy.
D. extension of Chinese power over the Indian Ocean.

16. What were the basic movements that lay behind the development of the crusades in Western Christendom?

A. Exploration of new worlds and chivalry
B. Chivalry and commerce
C. Pilgrimage and holy war
D. Commerce and pilgrimage

17. The economic security of the Inca Empire was based on

A. intensive maize farming.
B. environmental diversity.
C. extensive trade with the Aztec Empire.
D. ruthless massacres of enemy peoples.

18. The Khmer city of Angkor was laid out to evoke

A. ideas of the divine design of the world.
B. the greatness of the Khmer regime.
C. the power of the new Muslim ruler of the Khmer people.
D. the rhythms of the seasons and of the natural world

19. In China, the rise of the idea of a new Buddha who would inaugurate a golden age and give power to his followers led to

A. the rise of the Ming dynasty.
B. a resurgence in the power of Confucian elites.
C. a revolution in religious belief.
D. the rise of the Yuan dynasty

20. In the Mongol Empire, the plague

A. had no effect, because it mainly skipped over Mong

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