ART/101

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summarize the comparing characteristics and innovations of each Greek and Roman architecture in 200-300 words

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  • ART/101 -

    summarize comparing the characteristics and innovations in 200-300 words. Provide two representative examples of arhitecture for each Greek and Roman cultures.

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    Roman Structural revolution

    Concrete = cement plus an aggregate. An aggregate is a binding agent such as sand or gravel that is added to cement to form concrete.
    Cement
    Not a Roman invention
    Composed of lime, sand, and water
    Romans added a local volcanic ash called pozzolana
    Produced a cement of exceptional strength

    Roman aggregate
    Composed of stones, gravel, building debris, chips from stone quarries

    Thus: Roman cement + Roman aggregate = Roman concrete
    Far superior in strength to any earlier versions

    Advantages of concrete over natural stone
    No need to quarry it or transport it
    Could be mixed on site
    Could be cast into almost any shape

    Disadvantage of concrete compared to natural stone
    Not inherently weather resistant or aesthetically pleasing

  • ART/101 -

    Entasis: a column that curves outward in the middle of the shaft
    The column shaft gets narrower as it approaches the capital and the base.
    It is found on both smooth and fluted columns, and was a major feature of Greek architecture. Roman architecture also used entasis.
    Why it exists: it is an optical correction or refinement that helps a column appear straight (and therefore sturdy). Otherwise columns might appear as though they wanted to collapse inward.

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