# soc 120

posted by maria

1. The average height of members of the high scho etball team is six feet, three inches. Jerry is on the high school basketball team, so Jerry must be taller than six feet.
The argument above is flawed because it confuses (Points : 1)
Jerry with other members of the team
the members of one team with the members of another team
people who are six feet three inches tall for people who are exactly six feet tall
an average for the individuals that make up that average.
2. Catherine goes to her local movie theater only to see romantic comedies. Since Catherine did not go to the movies yesterday, there is not a romantic comedy playing at her local theater.
The reasoning above is flawed because the evidence (Points : 1)
does not suggest that Catherine goes to see every romantic comedy that plays at her local movie theater
implies that Catherine is uninterested in most types of movies
does not indicate whether Catherine watches only romantic comedies at home
suggests that Catherine’s local movie theater hardly ever shows romantic comedies
3. Mrs. Orlof teaches two history classes, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Yesterday she gave the same test to both classes. Anyone who failed the test must take a retest. Since a greater percentage of students who took the morning test failed the test than students who took the afternoon test, more of Orlof’s morning history students than afternoon history students will have to take the retest.
The conclusion above is not necessarily valid because (Points : 1)
more students in the morning class may have passed the test than failed the test
some students may have been absent from both classes
some of the students who passed the afternoon test may have received information about the test from morning students
more students may have taken the test in the afternoon than in the morning
4. People have claimed that Jamie’s paintings have given them the blues. Clearly this cannot be entirely correct, since many of Jamie’s paintings contain no blue at all.
The argument above is flawed because the author (Points : 1)
provides no evidence
misinterprets a key term
is not a noted painting expert
5. A recent study of 100 employees from six departments of a major corporation found 65% to be sleep deprived. The researchers concluded that the majority of corporate employees are sleep deprived.
The researcher’s conclusion is suspect because it (Points : 1)
assumes that corporate employees are more sleep deprived than other people
is based on evidence that is statistically impossible
fails to describe the effects the sleep deprivation has
relies on a sample that is too small to represent the entire corporate workforce

6. All sages provide both wisdom and inspiration. Since Dasha’s speech contained wisdom and greatly inspired her audience, Dasha is a sage.
Which one of the following points out the flaw in the argument above? (Points : 1)
Just because Dasha is a sage doesn’t mean that she is always wise and inspirational.
Just because Dasha’s speech provided wisdom and inspiration doesn’t mean that it provided more wisdom than inspiration.
Just because Dasha satisfied two requirements of being a sage doesn’t necessarily mean that she satisfies all the requirements of being a sage.
Just because Dasha provided wisdom and inspiration in a speech doesn’t mean that all sages use speeches to provide wisdom and inspiration.

7. The untimely death of Professor Hathaway halted his groundbreaking research into the uses of solar power. It therefore appears that Hathaway’s research will not result in practical applications.
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument? (Points : 1)
Professor Hathaway’s research can be used by other scientists to create useful applications.
Not all professors at Professor Hathaway’s university knew that he was conducting research into the uses of solar power.
Officials at Professor Hathaway’s university have refused requests to make Professor Hathaway’s research public.
Researchers at other universities are conducting research into the potential applications of solar power.

8. Aron: The two double A batteries in my CD player are dead, so the CD player doesn’t work. My television remote control, which also uses two double A batteries, works fine. So if I move the two batteries from my television remote control to my CD player, the CD player will definitely work.
Aron’s argument is most strengthened if which one of the following is true? (Points : 1)
Aron inserted the current batteries in his television remote control two months before he inserted the current batteries in his CD player.
The amount of energy required to power the CD player is not greater than the amount of energy needed to power the television remote control.
Aron has used his television remote control more times than he has used his CD player since inserting the current batteries into each device.
Double A batteries provide less energy than either C batteries or D batteries

9. Some politicians claim to support the environment in speeches they make around the country. However, to get to those speeches they ride in gas guzzling, pollution creating private planes. They therefore clearly don’t believe a word of what they say and are actually making the environmental problem worse.
Which one of the following, if true, would best weaken the argument above? (Points : 1)
Some of the politicians try to hide the fact that they travel by private plane to their speeches around the country.
Most people who hear the politicians’ speeches on the environment are unconvinced by their arguments.
A majority of voters surveyed agree that politicians sometimes make society’s problems worse.
Improvements to the environment brought about through the politicians’ public support of environmental regulations more than offset the damage done to the environment by the politicians’ private planes.

10. Last season at City Opera House, far more people attended opera X than opera Y. However, opera Y generated far greater net profits for City Opera House than did opera X.
Each of the following could directly explain the result indicated above EXCEPT: (Points : 1)
a difference in the ticket prices of operas X and Y
a difference in the operating expenses of operas X and Y
a difference in the subject matters of operas X and Y
a difference in the merchandise sales associated with operas X and Y

11. Surveys show that people who use calorie information to decide which foods to eat consume on average 100 calories less than they would if they didn’t check calorie information before eating. Strangely though, people who use calorie information in this way weigh more on average than people who don’t check calorie information before eating.
Which one of the following, if true, best explains the surprising statistic stated above? (Points : 1)
There are fewer people who check calorie information before eating than people who don’t check calorie information before eating.
People who usually check calorie information before eating consume more calories if they stop checking.
Some people who check calorie information before eating don’t consume any fewer calories than they would if they didn’t check.
People with a weight problem are most likely to check calorie information before eating

12. Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
heavy : weight (Points : 1)
dry : wet
feather : scale
hot : temperature
color : size

13. Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
conductor : orchestra (Points : 1)
skater : rink
teacher : principal
producer : movie
director : cast

14. Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
building : blueprint (Points : 1)
ship : sea
cake : recipe
bridge : island
guitar : song

15. Arthur: The solutions to most mystery novels I read are not believable. However, my enjoyment of a mystery novel depends only on its suspenseful mood and colorful characters.
Norton: Roughly 80% of the mystery novels I read have believable solutions, which is good since I do not enjoy mystery novels that don’t have believable solutions.
The speakers above (Points : 1)
agree that most mystery novels do not have believable solutions
agree that a suspenseful mood and colorful characters add to the enjoyment of a mystery novel
disagree on whether a believable solution is required for the enjoyment of a mystery novel
disagree on whether an author’s enjoyment in creating a mystery novel influences whether that novel will have a believable solution

16. Barney: Last winter, I slipped on the outside stairs of PineTree Café and broke my leg. My fall was caused by ice on the stairs that the restaurant failed to remove. Since the restaurant clearly did not provide a safe atmosphere for its customers, I am justified in taking it to court.
Lydia: Unwarranted lawsuits are sweeping the country—lawsuits that have no legal merit and are brought simply to make lawyers and their clients rich. If this trend continues, soon our legal system will be swamped to the point where it won’t be able to administer justice to people who truly deserve it. You therefore should drop your case against PineTree Café.
The speakers above appear to disagree on which one of the following points? (Points : 1)
Barney is likely to win his case against Pinetree Café.
Barney’s lawsuit against Pinetree Café is unwarranted.
Many unwarranted lawsuits are sweeping the country.
The legal system will soon be unable to administer justice to people who deserve it.

17. Only circus animals with a clean bill of health will perform in today’s exhibition. A monkey, a poodle, and a horse will perform in today’s exhibition. No circus animals with a clean bill of health were prescribed medications this week.
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true on the basis of them? (Points : 1)
The monkey, poodle, and horse are the only animals performing in today’s circus exhibition.
No circus animals were prescribe medications this week.
No more than two circus animals have a clean bill of health.
Neither the monkey nor the horse performing in today’s circus exhibition were prescribed medications this week.

18. The higher the price of an antique, the greater people’s expectation that the object is rare. That, in turn, makes the antique appear more valuable.
If the statements above are correct, then offering an antique for sale at a bargain price (Points : 1)
will likely increase people’s expectations that the antique is valuable
will guarantee that the antique will not sell at a profit
should be encouraged because it increases the likelihood that antique will be sold
should be discouraged because it lessens a quality that makes that antique desirable

19. Some drugs combat obesity or alcohol addiction by turning off pleasure centers in the brain. However, if the dosage is too high, there’s a risk that people taking them will be plunged into depression.
The statements above, if true, support which one of the following assertions? (Points : 1)
It is useless to try to treat obesity or alcohol addiction through drugs.
All drugs, if taken at too high a dosage, pose the risk that the people taking them will be plunged into depression.
The benefits of a medication may be at least somewhat offset by its side effects.
Drugs that affect pleasure centers in the brain are often taken at dosages considered to be too high.
20. Detective: The robbery at the mall was carried out by a mall employee acting alone roughly one hour after the mall closed last Saturday night. The only employees present at the mall at the time of the robbery were security guards Evans and Clark. Since the mall’s surveillance system was disabled by the thief just before the robbery, the thief must be Evans.
The argument above would be valid if (Points : 1)
Clark is incapable of disabling the mall’s surveillance system
both Evans and Clark are capable of disabling the mall’s surveillance system
Evans and Clark are the mall’s only security guards
the mall’s surveillance system is usually used 24 hours a day, seven days a week
21. Looking to increase the profits of his lemonade stand, Johann doubled the price of a cup of lemonade from 25 cents to 50 cents. This clearly shows Johann’s lack of business sense, for now he’ll almost certainly sell fewer cups at the new price and therefore make less money than before.
The argument above assumes that (Points : 1)
Johann is looking to double the profits of his lemonade stand
the price increase will likely put Johann out of business
profits from the price increase will not offset the money lost when fewer cups are sold
even if Johann sells more cups at the new price than he did at the old price, he’ll still lose money on the lemonade stand

22. The president spoke to 19 congressmen from Texas to encourage them to vote for a bill. Since four of the 19 congressmen went on to vote for the bill, it is clear that the president persuaded those four to vote the way they did.
The argument above assumes that (Points : 1)
the bill will not pass because a majority of Texas congressmen did not vote for it
the Texas congressmen who voted against the bill were persuaded by someone other than the president to vote the way they did
the president did not try to influence the votes of any congressmen outside of Texas
the four Texas congressmen who voted for the bill were against it before they spoke to the president

23. Whereas many industries suffer during economic recessions, the art industry does well. Some think the reason is that artists feed off the anxiety and uncertainty during recessions to produce inspired works. Others think that recessions, while harmful to most people, produce a handful of very rich people willing to pay very high prices for artworks, driving up the value of the art market as a whole.
The author of the passage above is primarily interested in (Points : 1)
providing evidence that the art industry does well during recessions
presenting reasons for why the art industry does well during recessions
discussing the types of artworks that sell best during recessions
describing the effect that art has on the economy

24. Political science professor: Many people insist that the Internet is revolutionizing the political process. They argue that Internet debates and online political polls and chat rooms give people greater access to political information. And they’re right that online political chatter increases daily. But offering or reading anonymous online opinions does not by itself make for active political participation. In the past one would attend a rally, protest, or town meeting to engage in real politics. Today, people sit passively in front of computer screens under the illusion that they are connecting with their fellow citizens.
Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the professor’s argument? (Points : 1)
Internet debates and online political polls and chat rooms give people greater access to political information.
Political organizations of the past bear no resemblance to the political organizations of today.
While the Internet has made more political content available, meaningful political

The Internet has revolutionized the political process because it has allowed many more political viewpoints to be expressed

25. Sometimes people get caught in a “downward spiral,” a case in which something leads to a result which in turn leads to more of the original thing, bringing on more of the result. As the process continues, the result continually gets worse and worse. An example is when people turn to binge eating when depressed, which causes them to put on weight and feel unhealthy, which then makes them more depressed, leading to more overeating, and so on.
The author is mainly concerned with (Points : 1)
convincing people not to overeat
explaining the process of the “downward spiral”
showing how overeating can lead to depression
showing how some processes lead to surprising results

#1 -4
#2 - 2
#3 - 4
#4 -1
#5 -4
#6 -4
#7 -1
#8 -1
#9 -4
#10 -2
#11 -4
#12 -3
#13 -4
#14 -2
#15 -3
#16 -2
#17 -1
#18 -4
#19 -2
#20 -1
#21 -1
#22 -2
#23 -1
#24 -3
#25 -2

1. Balling

#6 Should be #3
#10 should be #3

2. Natasha

The correct answer for #4 is misinterprets key terms --

3. Anonymous

#2 is 1

4. Anonymous

#19 is 3

5. candy

These are the automatically computed results of your exam. Grades for essay questions, and comments from your instructor, are in the "Details" section below. Date Taken: 6/26/2011
Time Spent: 1 h , 21 min , 13 secs
Points Received: 22 / 25 (88%)

Question Type: # Of Questions: # Correct:
Multiple Choice 25 22

1. Question : <11{1[4(23)23]}> People have claimed that Jamie’s paintings have given them the blues. Clearly this cannot be entirely correct, since many of Jamie’s paintings contain no blue at all.
The argument above is flawed because the author

misinterprets a key term
is not a noted painting expert

2. Question : <11{1[3(02)02]}> Catherine goes to her local movie theater only to see romantic comedies. Since Catherine did not go to the movies yesterday, there is not a romantic comedy playing at her local theater.
The reasoning above is flawed because the evidence

Student Answer: does not suggest that Catherine goes to see every romantic comedy that plays at her local movie theater
implies that Catherine is uninterested in most types of movies
does not indicate whether Catherine watches only romantic comedies at home
suggests that Catherine’s local movie theater hardly ever shows romantic comedies

3. Question : <21{1[1(13)13]}> A recent study of 100 employees from six departments of a major corporation found 65% to be sleep deprived. The researchers concluded that the majority of corporate employees are sleep deprived.
The researcher’s conclusion is suspect because it

Student Answer: assumes that corporate employees are more sleep deprived than other people
is based on evidence that is statistically impossible
fails to describe the effects the sleep deprivation has
relies on a sample that is too small to represent the entire corporate workforce

4. Question : <11{1[1(19)19]}> All sages provide both wisdom and inspiration. Since Dasha’s speech contained wisdom and greatly inspired her audience, Dasha is a sage.
Which one of the following points out the flaw in the argument above?

Student Answer: Just because Dasha is a sage doesn’t mean that she is always wise and inspirational.
Just because Dasha’s speech provided wisdom and inspiration doesn’t mean that it provided more wisdom than inspiration.
Just because Dasha satisfied two requirements of being a sage doesn’t necessarily mean that she satisfies all the requirements of being a sage.
Just because Dasha provided wisdom and inspiration in a speech doesn’t mean that all sages use speeches to provide wisdom and inspiration.

5. Question : <21{1[2(24)24]}> The average height of members of the high school basketball team is six feet, three inches. Jerry is on the high school basketball team, so Jerry must be taller than six feet.
The argument above is flawed because it confuses

Student Answer: Jerry with other members of the team
the members of one team with the members of another team
people who are six feet three inches tall for people who are exactly six feet tall
an average for the individuals that make up that average.

6. Question : <21{1[1(01)01]}> Since Jessica’s participation in local politics increased significantly after she joined her school’s political science club, it is clear that her involvement in that club led her to take an interest in politics.
The argument above is flawed because

Student Answer: it doesn’t say which political issues Jessica is interested in
it states that the only purpose of the political science club is to spark an interest in politics
it misuses the word “significantly”
it’s possible that an interest in politics caused Jessica to join the political science club

7. Question : <21{2[2(12)36]}> Career counselor: It is best for artists to build a practical and safe career that will guarantee them a secure income, and then pursue their art in their spare time. That way, they will be motivated to work hard at their day jobs to support their art making, and both their career and their art will thrive.
Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument?

Student Answer: Some forms of art making are expensive and require a good deal of money to pursue.
Many people who aren’t artists prefer to pursue practical and safe careers.
Having the time and money to make art doesn’t guarantee an artist commercial success.
Splitting time between two pursuits in life often causes both to suffer.

8. Question : <11{2[3(02)26]}> Aron: The two double A batteries in my CD player are dead, so the CD player doesn’t work. My television remote control, which also uses two double A batteries, works fine. So if I move the two batteries from my television remote control to my CD player, the CD player will definitely work.
Aron’s argument is most strengthened if which one of the following is true?

Student Answer: Aron inserted the current batteries in his television remote control two months before he inserted the current batteries in his CD player.
The amount of energy required to power the CD player is not greater than the amount of energy needed to power the television remote control.
Aron has used his television remote control more times than he has used his CD player since inserting the current batteries into each device.
Double A batteries provide less energy than either C batteries or D batteries.

9. Question : <21{2[1(01)25]}> The untimely death of Professor Hathaway halted his groundbreaking research into the uses of solar power. It therefore appears that Hathaway’s research will not result in practical applications.
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

Student Answer: Professor Hathaway’s research can be used by other scientists to create useful applications.
Not all professors at Professor Hathaway’s university knew that he was conducting research into the uses of solar power.
Officials at Professor Hathaway’s university have refused requests to make Professor Hathaway’s research public.
Researchers at other universities are conducting research into the potential applications of solar power.

10. Question : <11{3[1(03)39]}> Last season at City Opera House, far more people attended opera X than opera Y. However, opera Y generated far greater net profits for City Opera House than did opera X.
Each of the following could directly explain the result indicated above EXCEPT:

Student Answer: a difference in the ticket prices of operas X and Y
a difference in the operating expenses of operas X and Y
a difference in the subject matters of operas X and Y
a difference in the merchandise sales associated with operas X and Y

11. Question : <11{3[1(07)43]}> As part of its reorganization, company X created five new positions within the company. However, after the reorganization was complete, company X had fewer employees than before the reorganization.
Which one of the following, if true, would best explain the result described above?

Student Answer: Some employees of the company were switched into new departments to fill the new positions.
Some employees who quit over dissatisfaction with the reorganization were immediately replaced by new hires.
The new positions were created to respond to a greater demand for company X’s products.
Some employees were laid off as a number of old positions were eliminated in the reorganization.

12. Question : <11{4[2(12)56]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
building : blueprint

cake : recipe
bridge : island
guitar : song

13. Question : <11{4[2(06)50]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
gavel : judge

symphony : composer
stop sign : driver
ruler : math

14. Question : <21{4[3(02)46]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
conductor : orchestra

teacher : principal
producer : movie
director : cast

15. Question : <11{5[1(01)57]}> Arthur: The solutions to most mystery novels I read are not believable. However, my enjoyment of a mystery novel depends only on its suspenseful mood and colorful characters.
Norton: Roughly 80% of the mystery novels I read have believable solutions, which is good since I do not enjoy mystery novels that don’t have believable solutions.
The speakers above

Student Answer: agree that most mystery novels do not have believable solutions
agree that a suspenseful mood and colorful characters add to the enjoyment of a mystery novel
disagree on whether a believable solution is required for the enjoyment of a mystery novel
disagree on whether an author’s enjoyment in creating a mystery novel influences whether that novel will have a believable solution

16. Question : <11{5[1(05)61]}> Memmie: The greater the population near a restaurant, the more potential customers it has and the greater chance its popularity will spread through word-of-mouth. O’Sullivans Restaurant just opened in the very densely populated town of Redville, so its chances for success are great.
Sam: But the more people living in an area, the more restaurants there are in that area, so the more competition each one faces. There are twelve other restaurants serving the people of Redville.
Memmie and Sam seem to disagree about whether

Student Answer: O’Sullivans will fail in its first few months
O’Sullivans will serve a different kind of food than the other restaurants in Redville
the high population of Redville ensures O’Sullivan’s a great chance for success
word-of-mouth about a restaurant can spread in a densely populated town like Redville

17. Question : <11{6[1(07)71]}> The higher the price of an antique, the greater people’s expectation that the object is rare. That, in turn, makes the antique appear more valuable.
If the statements above are correct, then offering an antique for sale at a bargain price

Student Answer: will likely increase people’s expectations that the antique is valuable
will guarantee that the antique will not sell at a profit
should be encouraged because it increases the likelihood that antique will be sold
should be discouraged because it lessens a quality that makes that antique desirable

18. Question : <11{6[2(03)67]}> Only circus animals with a clean bill of health will perform in today’s exhibition. A monkey, a poodle, and a horse will perform in today’s exhibition. No circus animals with a clean bill of health were prescribed medications this week.
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true on the basis of them?

Student Answer: The monkey, poodle, and horse are the only animals performing in today’s circus exhibition.
No circus animals were prescribe medications this week.
No more than two circus animals have a clean bill of health.
Neither the monkey nor the horse performing in today’s circus exhibition were prescribed medications this week.

19. Question : <21{6[3(08)72]}> Some drugs combat obesity or alcohol addiction by turning off pleasure centers in the brain. However, if the dosage is too high, there’s a risk that people taking them will be plunged into depression.
The statements above, if true, support which one of the following assertions?

Student Answer: It is useless to try to treat obesity or alcohol addiction through drugs.
All drugs, if taken at too high a dosage, pose the risk that the people taking them will be plunged into depression.
The benefits of a medication may be at least somewhat offset by its side effects.
Drugs that affect pleasure centers in the brain are often taken at dosages considered to be too high.

20. Question : <11{7[3(08)84]}> The president spoke to 19 congressmen from Texas to encourage them to vote for a bill. Since four of the 19 congressmen went on to vote for the bill, it is clear that the president persuaded those four to vote the way they did.
The argument above assumes that

Student Answer: the bill will not pass because a majority of Texas congressmen did not vote for it
the Texas congressmen who voted against the bill were persuaded by someone other than the president to vote the way they did
the president did not try to influence the votes of any congressmen outside of Texas
the four Texas congressmen who voted for the bill were against it before they spoke to the president

21. Question : <11{7[1(01)77]}> Detective: The robbery at the mall was carried out by a mall employee acting alone roughly one hour after the mall closed last Saturday night. The only employees present at the mall at the time of the robbery were security guards Evans and Clark. Since the mall’s surveillance system was disabled by the thief just before the robbery, the thief must be Evans.
The argument above would be valid if

Student Answer: Clark is incapable of disabling the mall’s surveillance system
both Evans and Clark are capable of disabling the mall’s surveillance system
Evans and Clark are the mall’s only security guards
the mall’s surveillance system is usually used 24 hours a day, seven days a week

22. Question : <11{7[2(03)79]}> Looking to increase the profits of his lemonade stand, Johann doubled the price of a cup of lemonade from 25 cents to 50 cents. This clearly shows Johann’s lack of business sense, for now he’ll almost certainly sell fewer cups at the new price and therefore make less money than before.
The argument above assumes that

Student Answer: Johann is looking to double the profits of his lemonade stand
the price increase will likely put Johann out of business
profits from the price increase will not offset the money lost when fewer cups are sold
even if Johann sells more cups at the new price than he did at the old price, he’ll still lose money on the lemonade stand

23. Question : <11{8[3(02)90]}> Whereas many industries suffer during economic recessions, the art industry does well. Some think the reason is that artists feed off the anxiety and uncertainty during recessions to produce inspired works. Others think that recessions, while harmful to most people, produce a handful of very rich people willing to pay very high prices for artworks, driving up the value of the art market as a whole.
The author of the passage above is primarily interested in

Student Answer: providing evidence that the art industry does well during recessions
presenting reasons for why the art industry does well during recessions
discussing the types of artworks that sell best during recessions
describing the effect that art has on the economy

24. Question : <11{8[1(10)98]}> Sometimes people get caught in a “downward spiral,” a case in which something leads to a result which in turn leads to more of the original thing, bringing on more of the result. As the process continues, the result continually gets worse and worse. An example is when people turn to binge eating when depressed, which causes them to put on weight and feel unhealthy, which then makes them more depressed, leading to more overeating, and so on.
The author is mainly concerned with

Student Answer: convincing people not to overeat
explaining the process of the “downward spiral”
showing how overeating can lead to depression
showing how some processes lead to surprising results

25. Question : <21{8[1(07)95]}> Political science professor: Many people insist that the Internet is revolutionizing the political process. They argue that Internet debates and online political polls and chat rooms give people greater access to political information. And they’re right that online political chatter increases daily. But offering or reading anonymous online opinions does not by itself make for active political participation. In the past one would attend a rally, protest, or town meeting to engage in real politics. Today, people sit passively in front of computer screens under the illusion that they are connecting with their fellow citizens.
Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the professor’s argument?

Student Answer: Internet debates and online political polls and chat rooms give people greater access to political information.
Political organizations of the past bear no resemblance to the political organizations of today.
While the Internet has made more political content available, meaningful political involvement has decreased.
The Internet has revolutionized the political process because it has allowed many more political viewpoints to be expressed.

6. Lynette

#1-A,#2-A, #3-A, #4-A, #5-A,#6-A,#7-A,#8-A,#9-A,#10-A, #11-A,#12-A,#13-A,#14-5,#15-A,#16-A,#17-A,#18-A, #19-A,#20-A,#21-A, #22-A,#23-A, #24-A, #25-A.

7. Anonymous

1. Question : <21{1[1(13)13]}> A recent study of 100 employees from six departments of a major corporation found 65% to be sleep deprived. The researchers concluded that the majority of corporate employees are sleep deprived.
The researcher’s conclusion is suspect because it

Student Answer: assumes that corporate employees are more sleep deprived than other people
is based on evidence that is statistically impossible
fails to describe the effects the sleep deprivation has
relies on a sample that is too small to represent the entire corporate workforce

2. Question : <11{1[4(23)23]}> People have claimed that Jamie’s paintings have given them the blues. Clearly this cannot be entirely correct, since many of Jamie’s paintings contain no blue at all.
The argument above is flawed because the author

misinterprets a key term
is not a noted painting expert

3. Question : <11{1[3(02)02]}> Catherine goes to her local movie theater only to see romantic comedies. Since Catherine did not go to the movies yesterday, there is not a romantic comedy playing at her local theater.
The reasoning above is flawed because the evidence

Student Answer: does not suggest that Catherine goes to see every romantic comedy that plays at her local movie theater
implies that Catherine is uninterested in most types of movies
does not indicate whether Catherine watches only romantic comedies at home
suggests that Catherine’s local movie theater hardly ever shows romantic comedies

4. Question : <11{1[1(19)19]}> All sages provide both wisdom and inspiration. Since Dasha’s speech contained wisdom and greatly inspired her audience, Dasha is a sage.
Which one of the following points out the flaw in the argument above?

Student Answer: Just because Dasha is a sage doesn’t mean that she is always wise and inspirational.
Just because Dasha’s speech provided wisdom and inspiration doesn’t mean that it provided more wisdom than inspiration.
Just because Dasha satisfied two requirements of being a sage doesn’t necessarily mean that she satisfies all the requirements of being a sage.
Just because Dasha provided wisdom and inspiration in a speech doesn’t mean that all sages use speeches to provide wisdom and inspiration.

5. Question : <21{1[1(01)01]}> Since Jessica’s participation in local politics increased significantly after she joined her school’s political science club, it is clear that her involvement in that club led her to take an interest in politics.
The argument above is flawed because

Student Answer: it doesn’t say which political issues Jessica is interested in
it states that the only purpose of the political science club is to spark an interest in politics
it misuses the word “significantly”
it’s possible that an interest in politics caused Jessica to join the political science club

6. Question : <11{1[4(17)17]}> Mrs. Orlof teaches two history classes, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Yesterday she gave the same test to both classes. Anyone who failed the test must take a retest. Since a greater percentage of students who took the morning test failed the test than students who took the afternoon test, more of Orlof’s morning history students than afternoon history students will have to take the retest.
The conclusion above is not necessarily valid because

Student Answer: more students in the morning class may have passed the test than failed the test
some students may have been absent from both classes
some of the students who passed the afternoon test may have received information about the test from morning students
more students may have taken the test in the afternoon than in the morning

7. Question : <21{2[2(12)36]}> Career counselor: It is best for artists to build a practical and safe career that will guarantee them a secure income, and then pursue their art in their spare time. That way, they will be motivated to work hard at their day jobs to support their art making, and both their career and their art will thrive.
Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument?

Student Answer: Some forms of art making are expensive and require a good deal of money to pursue.
Many people who aren’t artists prefer to pursue practical and safe careers.
Having the time and money to make art doesn’t guarantee an artist commercial success.
Splitting time between two pursuits in life often causes both to suffer.

8. Question : <11{2[3(11)35]}> Some politicians claim to support the environment in speeches they make around the country. However, to get to those speeches they ride in gas guzzling, pollution creating private planes. They therefore clearly don’t believe a word of what they say and are actually making the environmental problem worse.
Which one of the following, if true, would best weaken the argument above?

Student Answer: Some of the politicians try to hide the fact that they travel by private plane to their speeches around the country.
Most people who hear the politicians’ speeches on the environment are unconvinced by their arguments.
A majority of voters surveyed agree that politicians sometimes make society’s problems worse.
Improvements to the environment brought about through the politicians’ public support of environmental regulations more than offset the damage done to the environment by the politicians’ private planes.

9. Question : <11{2[3(02)26]}> Aron: The two double A batteries in my CD player are dead, so the CD player doesn’t work. My television remote control, which also uses two double A batteries, works fine. So if I move the two batteries from my television remote control to my CD player, the CD player will definitely work.
Aron’s argument is most strengthened if which one of the following is true?

Student Answer: Aron inserted the current batteries in his television remote control two months before he inserted the current batteries in his CD player.
The amount of energy required to power the CD player is not greater than the amount of energy needed to power the television remote control.
Aron has used his television remote control more times than he has used his CD player since inserting the current batteries into each device.
Double A batteries provide less energy than either C batteries or D batteries.

10. Question : <21{3[2(08)44]}> Surveys show that people who use calorie information to decide which foods to eat consume on average 100 calories less than they would if they didn’t check calorie information before eating. Strangely though, people who use calorie information in this way weigh more on average than people who don’t check calorie information before eating.
Which one of the following, if true, best explains the surprising statistic stated above?

Student Answer: There are fewer people who check calorie information before eating than people who don’t check calorie information before eating.
People who usually check calorie information before eating consume more calories if they stop checking.
Some people who check calorie information before eating don’t consume any fewer calories than they would if they didn’t check.
People with a weight problem are most likely to check calorie information before eating.

11. Question : <11{3[1(07)43]}> As part of its reorganization, company X created five new positions within the company. However, after the reorganization was complete, company X had fewer employees than before the reorganization.
Which one of the following, if true, would best explain the result described above?

Student Answer: Some employees of the company were switched into new departments to fill the new positions.
Some employees who quit over dissatisfaction with the reorganization were immediately replaced by new hires.
The new positions were created to respond to a greater demand for company X’s products.
Some employees were laid off as a number of old positions were eliminated in the reorganization.

12. Question : <11{4[2(12)56]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
building : blueprint

cake : recipe
bridge : island
guitar : song

13. Question : <21{4[1(10)54]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
heavy : weight

feather : scale
hot : temperature
color : size

14. Question : <21{4[3(02)46]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
conductor : orchestra

teacher : principal
producer : movie
director : cast

15. Question : <21{5[1(03)59]}> Barney: Last winter, I slipped on the outside stairs of PineTree Café and broke my leg. My fall was caused by ice on the stairs that the restaurant failed to remove. Since the restaurant clearly did not provide a safe atmosphere for its customers, I am justified in taking it to court.
Lydia: Unwarranted lawsuits are sweeping the country—lawsuits that have no legal merit and are brought simply to make lawyers and their clients rich. If this trend continues, soon our legal system will be swamped to the point where it won’t be able to administer justice to people who truly deserve it. You therefore should drop your case against PineTree Café.
The speakers above appear to disagree on which one of the following points?

Student Answer: Barney is likely to win his case against Pinetree Café.
Barney’s lawsuit against Pinetree Café is unwarranted.
Many unwarranted lawsuits are sweeping the country.
The legal system will soon be unable to administer justice to people who deserve it.

16. Question : <11{5[1(05)61]}> Memmie: The greater the population near a restaurant, the more potential customers it has and the greater chance its popularity will spread through word-of-mouth. O’Sullivans Restaurant just opened in the very densely populated town of Redville, so its chances for success are great.
Sam: But the more people living in an area, the more restaurants there are in that area, so the more competition each one faces. There are twelve other restaurants serving the people of Redville.
Memmie and Sam seem to disagree about whether

Student Answer: O’Sullivans will fail in its first few months
O’Sullivans will serve a different kind of food than the other restaurants in Redville
the high population of Redville ensures O’Sullivan’s a great chance for success
word-of-mouth about a restaurant can spread in a densely populated town like Redville

17. Question : <7{6[3(02)66]}> In a survey of 10 film historians, half voted for Nosferatu as the greatest vampire film ever made, and the other half voted for Dracula. However, when asked which lead vampire character they considered more charismatic, all of the film critics chose Dracula over Nosferatu.
Based on the information above, it must be true that for some film critics, their feelings about the charisma of the lead character

Student Answer: is the least important factor they consider when comparing two films
is the most important factor they consider when comparing two films
is not the most important factor they consider when comparing two films
is the only factor they consider when comparing two films

18. Question : <21{6[3(08)72]}> Some drugs combat obesity or alcohol addiction by turning off pleasure centers in the brain. However, if the dosage is too high, there’s a risk that people taking them will be plunged into depression.
The statements above, if true, support which one of the following assertions?

Student Answer: It is useless to try to treat obesity or alcohol addiction through drugs.
All drugs, if taken at too high a dosage, pose the risk that the people taking them will be plunged into depression.
The benefits of a medication may be at least somewhat offset by its side effects.
Drugs that affect pleasure centers in the brain are often taken at dosages considered to be too high.

19. Question : <11{6[2(03)67]}> Only circus animals with a clean bill of health will perform in today’s exhibition. A monkey, a poodle, and a horse will perform in today’s exhibition. No circus animals with a clean bill of health were prescribed medications this week.
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true on the basis of them?

Student Answer: The monkey, poodle, and horse are the only animals performing in today’s circus exhibition.
No circus animals were prescribe medications this week.
No more than two circus animals have a clean bill of health.
Neither the monkey nor the horse performing in today’s circus exhibition were prescribed medications this week.

20. Question : <11{7[3(08)84]}> The president spoke to 19 congressmen from Texas to encourage them to vote for a bill. Since four of the 19 congressmen went on to vote for the bill, it is clear that the president persuaded those four to vote the way they did.
The argument above assumes that

Student Answer: the bill will not pass because a majority of Texas congressmen did not vote for it
the Texas congressmen who voted against the bill were persuaded by someone other than the president to vote the way they did
the president did not try to influence the votes of any congressmen outside of Texas
the four Texas congressmen who voted for the bill were against it before they spoke to the president

21. Question : <21{7[1(04)80]}> A company can either invest in employee training seminars or update its computer network. Since updating the computer network would result in more measurable benefits, the company would be best off updating its computer network.
The argument above assumes that

Student Answer: investing in employee training seminars would yield negative results for the company
the more measurable a benefit, the greater value that benefit has to a company
the employee training seminars would focus on teaching employees to use the updated computer network
the benefit of the company investing in employee training seminars cannot be measured at all

22. Question : <11{7[1(01)77]}> Detective: The robbery at the mall was carried out by a mall employee acting alone roughly one hour after the mall closed last Saturday night. The only employees present at the mall at the time of the robbery were security guards Evans and Clark. Since the mall’s surveillance system was disabled by the thief just before the robbery, the thief must be Evans.
The argument above would be valid if

Student Answer: Clark is incapable of disabling the mall’s surveillance system
both Evans and Clark are capable of disabling the mall’s surveillance system
Evans and Clark are the mall’s only security guards
the mall’s surveillance system is usually used 24 hours a day, seven days a week

23. Question : <21{8[1(07)95]}> Political science professor: Many people insist that the Internet is revolutionizing the political process. They argue that Internet debates and online political polls and chat rooms give people greater access to political information. And they’re right that online political chatter increases daily. But offering or reading anonymous online opinions does not by itself make for active political participation. In the past one would attend a rally, protest, or town meeting to engage in real politics. Today, people sit passively in front of computer screens under the illusion that they are connecting with their fellow citizens.
Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the professor’s argument?

Student Answer: Internet debates and online political polls and chat rooms give people greater access to political information.
Political organizations of the past bear no resemblance to the political organizations of today.
While the Internet has made more political content available, meaningful political involvement has decreased.
The Internet has revolutionized the political process because it has allowed many more political viewpoints to be expressed.

24. Question : <11{8[3(02)90]}> Whereas many industries suffer during economic recessions, the art industry does well. Some think the reason is that artists feed off the anxiety and uncertainty during recessions to produce inspired works. Others think that recessions, while harmful to most people, produce a handful of very rich people willing to pay very high prices for artworks, driving up the value of the art market as a whole.
The author of the passage above is primarily interested in

Student Answer: providing evidence that the art industry does well during recessions
presenting reasons for why the art industry does well during recessions
discussing the types of artworks that sell best during recessions
describing the effect that art has on the economy

25. Question : <11{8[1(10)98]}> Sometimes people get caught in a “downward spiral,” a case in which something leads to a result which in turn leads to more of the original thing, bringing on more of the result. As the process continues, the result continually gets worse and worse. An example is when people turn to binge eating when depressed, which causes them to put on weight and feel unhealthy, which then makes them more depressed, leading to more overeating, and so on.
The author is mainly concerned with

Student Answer: convincing people not to overeat
explaining the process of the “downward spiral”
showing how overeating can lead to depression
showing how some processes lead to surprising results

8. kim

1 32

9. Anonymous

<11{1[4(17)17]}> Mrs. Orlof teaches two history classes, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Yesterday she gave the same test to both classes. Anyone who failed the test must take a retest. Since a greater percentage of students who took the morning test failed the test than students who took the afternoon test, more of Orlof’s morning history students than afternoon history students will have to take the retest.

10. Tameika

Questions 3 is misinterprets a key term

11. Tameika

5- it’s possible that an interest in politics caused Jessica to join the political science club
6-Just because Dasha satisfied two requirements of being a sage doesn’t necessarily mean that she satisfies all the requirements of being a sage.
7- Professor Hathaway’s research can be used by other scientists to create useful applications.
11- People with a weight problem are most likely to check calorie information before eating.
12- ship : sea
14- baton : conductor
15- Barney’s lawsuit against Pinetree Café is unwarranted.
18- The benefits of a medication may be at least somewhat offset by its side effects
20- the more measurable a benefit, the greater value that benefit has to a company

12. janet

PHI 103 Critical Thinking Quiz 100%
1. A recent study of 100 employees from six departments of a major corporation found 65% to be sleep deprived. The researchers concluded that the majority of corporate employees are sleep deprived. The researcher’s conclusion is suspect because it

ANS: Relies on a sample that is too small to represent the entire corporate workforce

2. Mrs. Orlof teaches two history classes, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Yesterday she gave the same test to both classes. Anyone who failed the test must take a retest. Since a greater percentage of students who took the morning test failed the test than students who took the afternoon test, more of Orlof’s morning history students than afternoon history students will have to take the retest. The conclusion above is not necessarily valid because
ANS: More students may have taken the test in the afternoon than in the morning
3. People have claimed that Jamie’s paintings have given them the blues. Clearly this cannot be entirely correct, since many of Jamie’s paintings contain no blue at all. The argument above is flawed because the author
ANS: Misinterprets a key term

4. All sages provide both wisdom and inspiration. Since Dasha’s speech contained wisdom and greatly inspired her audience, Dasha is a sage. Which one of the following points out the flaw in the argument above?
ANS: Just because Dasha satisfied two requirements of being a sage doesn’t necessarily mean that she satisfies all the requirements of being a sage.

5. Catherine goes to her local movie theater only to see romantic comedies. Since Catherine did not go to the movies yesterday, there is not a romantic comedy playing at her local theater.
ANS: does not suggest that Catherine goes to see every romantic comedy that plays at her local movie theater

6. Since Jessica’s participation in local politics increased significantly after she joined her school’s political science club, it is clear that her involvement in that club led her to take an interest in politics.
ANS: it’s possible that an interest in politics caused Jessica to join the political science club

7. Aron: The two double A batteries in my CD player are dead, so the CD player doesn’t work. My television remote control, which also uses two double A batteries, works fine. So if I move the two batteries from my television remote control to my CD player, the CD player will definitely work.
ANS: The amount of energy required to power the CD player is not greater than the amount of energy needed to power the television remote control.
8. Some politicians claim to support the environment in speeches they make around the country. However, to get to those speeches they ride in gas guzzling, pollution creating private planes. They therefore clearly don’t believe a word of what they say and are actually making the environmental problem worse.
ANS: Improvements to the environment brought about through the politicians’ public support of environmental regulations more than offset the damage done to the environment by the politicians’ private planes.

9. The untimely death of Professor Hathaway halted his groundbreaking research into the uses of solar power. It therefore appears that Hathaway’s research will not result in practical applications.
ANS: Professor Hathaway’s research can be used by other scientists to create useful applications.

10. As part of its reorganization, company X created five new positions within the company. However, after the reorganization was complete, company X had fewer employees than before the reorganization.
ANS: Some employees were laid off as a number of old positions were eliminated in the reorganization.

11. Surveys show that people who use calorie information to decide which foods to eat consume on average 100 calories less than they would if they didn’t check calorie information before eating. Strangely though, people who use calorie information in this way weigh more on average than people who don’t check calorie information before eating.
ANS: People with a weight problem are most likely to check calorie information before eating.

12. Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
heavy : weight
ANS: hot: temperature

13. Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
conductor : orchestra
ANS: director : cast

14. Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
gavel : judge
ANS: baton : conductor
15. The solutions to most mystery novels I read are not believable. However, my enjoyment of a mystery novel depends only on its suspenseful mood and colorful characters.
Norton: Roughly 80% of the mystery novels I read have believable solutions, which is good since I do not enjoy mystery novels that don’t have believable solutions.
The speakers above
ANS: disagree on whether a believable solution is required for the enjoyment of a mystery novel

16. Barney: Last winter, I slipped on the outside stairs of PineTree Café and broke my leg. My fall was caused by ice on the stairs that the restaurant failed to remove. Since the restaurant clearly did not provide a safe atmosphere for its customers, I am justified in taking it to court.
Lydia: Unwarranted lawsuits are sweeping the country—lawsuits that have no legal merit and are brought simply to make lawyers and their clients rich. If this trend continues, soon our legal system will be swamped to the point where it won’t be able to administer justice to people who truly deserve it. You therefore should drop your case against PineTree Café.
The speakers above appear to disagree on which one of the following points?
ANS: Barney’s lawsuit against Pinetree Café is unwarranted.

17. In a survey of 10 film historians, half voted for Nosferatu as the greatest vampire film ever made, and the other half voted for Dracula. However, when asked which lead vampire character they considered more charismatic, all of the film critics chose Dracula over Nosferatu.
ANS: is not the most important factor they consider when comparing two films

18. Some drugs combat obesity or alcohol addiction by turning off pleasure centers in the brain. However, if the dosage is too high, there’s a risk that people taking them will be plunged into depression.
ANS: The benefits of a medication may be at least somewhat offset by its side effects.

19. The higher the price of an antique, the greater people’s expectation that the object is rare. That, in turn, makes the antique appear more valuable.
ANS: should be discouraged because it lessens a quality that makes that antique desirable

20. A company can either invest in employee training seminars or update its computer network. Since updating the computer network would result in more measurable benefits, the company would be best off updating its computer network.
ANS: the more measurable a benefit, the greater value that benefit has to a company
21. Looking to increase the profits of his lemonade stand, Johann doubled the price of a cup of lemonade from 25 cents to 50 cents. This clearly shows Johann’s lack of business sense, for now he’ll almost certainly sell fewer cups at the new price and therefore make less money than before.
ANS: profits from the price increase will not offset the money lost when fewer cups are sold

22. The president spoke to 19 congressmen from Texas to encourage them to vote for a bill. Since four of the 19 congressmen went on to vote for the bill, it is clear that the president persuaded those four to vote the way they did.
ANS: the four Texas congressmen who voted for the bill were against it before they spoke to the president

23. Sometimes people get caught in a “downward spiral,” a case in which something leads to a result which in turn leads to more of the original thing, bringing on more of the result. As the process continues, the result continually gets worse and worse. An example is when people turn to binge eating when depressed, which causes them to put on weight and feel unhealthy, which then makes them more depressed, leading to more overeating, and so on.
ANS: explaining the process of the “downward spiral”

24. The very large increase in allergies over the last thirty years is due to the great success of immunizations administered over this time period. Since immunizations have nearly eliminated life-threatening diseases such as polio, the human immune system increasingly targets other environmental substances in order to keep working properly. Allergy symptoms such as runny nose and itchy eyes result when the immune system attacks pollen that is breathed in from the air.
ANS: The use of immunizations has led to an increase in allergies

25. Political science professor: Many people insist that the Internet is revolutionizing the political process. They argue that Internet debates and online political polls and chat rooms give people greater access to political information. And they’re right that online political chatter increases daily. But offering or reading anonymous online opinions does not by itself make for active political participation. In the past one would attend a rally, protest, or town meeting to engage in real politics. Today, people sit passively in front of computer screens under the illusion that they are connecting with their fellow citizens.
ANS: While the Internet has made more political content available, meaningful political involvement has decreased

13. Anonymous

Do not use the answers provided above. They are wrong. I used them and I did not pass. Someone did this on purpose.

14. Anonymous2

these don't work!

15. Anonymous

yes it does.

16. Anonymous

the last set that is...idk about the earlier ones. but i just took my test and majority of the answers were what i chose

17. Anonymous

I went through this with whoever got the 88% and I got a 24%...That SUCKS!!!

18. Erick millian

DONT USE THESE ANSWERS...I GOT 3 OUT OF 25. WILL HAVE BETTER LUCK JUST GUESSING! }:@

19. Anonymous

Try answering them for yourselves and USE these answers AS A GUIDE. Obviously you're not putting forth any effort to legitimately answer the questions. If you find a discrepancy, you obviously need to do more research. Cheers, and thanks for confirming my choices!

20. meme

Question :
Only circus animals with a clean bill of health will perform in today’s exhibition. A monkey, a poodle, and a horse will perform in today’s exhibition. No circus animals with a clean bill of health were prescribed medications this week.
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true on the basis of them?

CORRECT Neither the monkey nor the horse performing in today’s circus exhibition were prescribed medications this week.

21. Jasper

Question :The president spoke to 19 congressmen from Texas to encourage them to vote for a bill. Since four of the 19 congressmen went on to vote for the bill, it is clear that the president persuaded those four to vote the way they did.
The argument above assumes that:

Student Answer: CORRECT the four Texas congressmen who voted for the bill were against it before they spoke to the president.

22. KLR

1. Question :

<11{1[4(23)23]}> People have claimed that Jamie’s paintings have given them the blues. Clearly this cannot be entirely correct, since many of Jamie’s paintings contain no blue at all.
The argument above is flawed because the author:
CORRECT misinterprets a key term.
is not a noted painting expert.

Question 2. Question :

<21{1[1(13)13]}> A recent study of 100 employees from six departments of a major corporation found 65% to be sleep deprived. The researchers concluded that the majority of corporate employees are sleep deprived.
The researcher’s conclusion is suspect because it:
Student Answer: assumes that corporate employees are more sleep deprived than other people.
is based on evidence that is statistically impossible.
fails to describe the effects the sleep deprivation has.
CORRECT relies on a sample that is too small to represent the entire corporate workforce.

Question 3. Question :

<11{1[2(06)06]}> Reporter: A new campaign finance reform bill being considered by Congress would limit the amount of campaign contributions that political candidates can receive. However, a survey of candidates running for mayor, governor, and senate seats shows that not one of them favors the bill. Clearly, there is no desire among politicians to limit campaign contributions.
Which one of the following points out the flaw in the reporter’s argument above?
Student Answer: The reporter doesn’t indicate the amount that the new bill would limit campaign contributions.
The evidence provided by the reporter suggests that most politicians are in favor of the new bill.
The reporter wrongly assumes that no politician has ever supported a bill intended to limit campaign contributions.
CORRECT The views of candidates currently running for office do not necessarily represent the views of all politicians.

Question 4. Question :

<11{1[1(19)19]}> All sages provide both wisdom and inspiration. Since Dasha’s speech contained wisdom and greatly inspired her audience, Dasha is a sage.
Which one of the following points out the flaw in the argument above?
Student Answer: Just because Dasha is a sage doesn’t mean that she is always wise and inspirational.
Just because Dasha’s speech provided wisdom and inspiration doesn’t mean that it provided more wisdom than inspiration.
CORRECT Just because Dasha satisfied two requirements of being a sage doesn’t necessarily mean that she satisfies all the requirements of being a sage.
Just because Dasha provided wisdom and inspiration in a speech doesn’t mean that all sages use speeches to provide wisdom and inspiration.

Question 5. Question :

<11{1[4(17)17]}> Mrs. Orlof teaches two history classes, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Yesterday she gave the same test to both classes. Anyone who failed the test must take a retest. Since a greater percentage of students who took the morning test failed the test than students who took the afternoon test, more of Orlof’s morning history students than afternoon history students will have to take the retest.
The conclusion above is not necessarily valid because:
Student Answer: INCORRECT more students in the morning class may have passed the test than failed the test.
some students may have been absent from both classes.
some of the students who passed the afternoon test may have received information about the test from morning students.
CORRECT more students may have taken the test in the afternoon than in the morning.

Question 6. Question :

<21{1[2(24)24]}> The average height of members of the high school basketball team is six feet, three inches. Jerry is on the high school basketball team, so Jerry must be taller than six feet.
The argument above is flawed because it confuses
Student Answer: Jerry with other members of the team
the members of one team with the members of another team
people who are six feet three inches tall for people who are exactly six feet tall
CORRECT an average for the individuals that make up that average.

Question 7. Question :

<11{2[3(11)35]}> Some politicians claim to support the environment in speeches they make around the country. However, to get to those speeches they ride in gas guzzling, pollution creating private planes. They therefore clearly don’t believe a word of what they say and are actually making the environmental problem worse.
Which one of the following, if true, would best weaken the argument above?
Student Answer: INCORRECT Some of the politicians try to hide the fact that they travel by private plane to their speeches around the country.
Most people who hear the politicians’ speeches on the environment are unconvinced by their arguments.
A majority of voters surveyed agree that politicians sometimes make society’s problems worse.
CORRECT Improvements to the environment brought about through the politicians’ public support of environmental regulations more than offset the damage done to the environment by the politicians’ private planes.

Question 8. Question :

<21{2[1(01)25]}> The untimely death of Professor Hathaway halted his groundbreaking research into the uses of solar power. It therefore appears that Hathaway’s research will not result in practical applications.
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
Student Answer: CORRECT Professor Hathaway’s research can be used by other scientists to create useful applications.
Not all professors at Professor Hathaway’s university knew that he was conducting research into the uses of solar power.
Officials at Professor Hathaway’s university have refused requests to make Professor Hathaway’s research public.
Researchers at other universities are conducting research into the potential applications of solar power.

Question 9. Question :

<21{2[2(12)36]}> Career counselor: It is best for artists to build a practical and safe career that will guarantee them a secure income, and then pursue their art in their spare time. That way, they will be motivated to work hard at their day jobs to support their art making, and both their career and their art will thrive.
Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument?
Student Answer: INCORRECT Some forms of art making are expensive and require a good deal of money to pursue.
Many people who aren’t artists prefer to pursue practical and safe careers.
Having the time and money to make art doesn’t guarantee an artist commercial success.
CORRECT Splitting time between two pursuits in life often causes both to suffer.

Question 10. Question :

<11{3[1(07)43]}> As part of its reorganization, company X created five new positions within the company. However, after the reorganization was complete, company X had fewer employees than before the reorganization.
Which one of the following, if true, would best explain the result described above?
Student Answer: INCORRECT Some employees of the company were switched into new departments to fill the new positions.
Some employees who quit over dissatisfaction with the reorganization were immediately replaced by new hires.
The new positions were created to respond to a greater demand for company X’s products.
CORRECT Some employees were laid off as a number of old positions were eliminated in the reorganization.

Question 11. Question :

<21{3[2(08)44]}> Surveys show that people who use calorie information to decide which foods to eat consume on average 100 calories less than they would if they didn’t check calorie information before eating. Strangely though, people who use calorie information in this way weigh more on average than people who don’t check calorie information before eating.
Which one of the following, if true, best explains the surprising statistic stated above?
Student Answer: There are fewer people who check calorie information before eating than people who don’t check calorie information before eating.
People who usually check calorie information before eating consume more calories if they stop checking.
Some people who check calorie information before eating don’t consume any fewer calories than they would if they didn’t check.
CORRECT People with a weight problem are most likely to check calorie information before eating.

Question 12. Question :

<11{4[2(12)56]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
building : blueprint
Student Answer: INCORRECT ship : sea
CORRECT cake : recipe
bridge : island
guitar : song

Question 13. Question :

<21{4[3(02)46]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
conductor : orchestra
teacher : principal
producer : movie
CORRECT director : cast

Question 14. Question :

<11{4[2(06)50]}> Choose the pair of words/phrases among the choices that exhibits the same logical relationship as the words/phrases in the following pair.
gavel : judge
Student Answer: CORRECT baton : conductor
symphony : composer
stop sign : driver
ruler : math

Question 15. Question :

<11{5[1(05)61]}> Memmie: The greater the population near a restaurant, the more potential customers it has and the greater chance its popularity will spread through word-of-mouth. O’Sullivans Restaurant just opened in the very densely populated town of Redville, so its chances for success are great.
Sam: But the more people living in an area, the more restaurants there are in that area, so the more competition each one faces. There are twelve other restaurants serving the people of Redville.
Memmie and Sam seem to disagree about whether:
Student Answer: INCORRECT O’Sullivans will fail in its first few months.
O’Sullivans will serve a different kind of food than the other restaurants in Redville.
CORRECT the high population of Redville ensures that O’Sullivan’s has a great chance for success.
word-of-mouth about a restaurant can spread in a densely populated town like Redville.

Question 16. Question :

<21{5[1(03)59]}> Barney: Last winter, I slipped on the outside stairs of PineTree Café and broke my leg. My fall was caused by ice on the stairs that the restaurant failed to remove. Since the restaurant clearly did not provide a safe atmosphere for its customers, I am justified in taking it to court.
Lydia: Unwarranted lawsuits are sweeping the country—lawsuits that have no legal merit and are brought simply to make lawyers and their clients rich. If this trend continues, soon our legal system will be swamped to the point where it won’t be able to administer justice to people who truly deserve it. You therefore should drop your case against PineTree Café.
The speakers above appear to disagree on which one of the following points?
Student Answer: Barney is likely to win his case against Pinetree Café.
CORRECT Barney’s lawsuit against Pinetree Café is unwarranted.
Many unwarranted lawsuits are sweeping the country.
The legal system will soon be unable to administer justice to people who deserve it.

Question 17. Question :

<7{6[3(02)66]}> In a survey of 10 film historians, half voted for Nosferatu as the greatest vampire film ever made, and the other half voted for Dracula. However, when asked which lead vampire character they considered more charismatic, all of the film critics chose Dracula over Nosferatu.
Based on the information above, it must be true that for some film critics, their feelings about the charisma of the lead character:
Student Answer: INCORRECT is the least important factor they consider when comparing two films.
is the most important factor they consider when comparing two films.
CORRECT is not the most important factor they consider when comparing two films.
is the only factor they consider when comparing two films.

Question 18. Question :

<21{6[3(08)72]}> Some drugs combat obesity or alcohol addiction by turning off pleasure centers in the brain. However, if the dosage is too high, there’s a risk that people taking them will be plunged into depression.
The statements above, if true, support which one of the following assertions?
Student Answer: It is useless to try to treat obesity or alcohol addiction through drugs.
All drugs, if taken at too high a dosage, pose the risk that the people taking them will be plunged into depression.
CORRECT The benefits of a medication may be at least somewhat offset by its side effects.
Drugs that affect pleasure centers in the brain are often taken at dosages considered to be too high.

Question 19. Question :

<11{6[1(07)71]}> The higher the price of an antique, the greater people’s expectation that the object is rare. That, in turn, makes the antique appear more valuable.
If the statements above are correct, then offering an antique for sale at a bargain price:
Student Answer: will likely increase people’s expectations that the antique is valuable.
will guarantee that the antique will not sell at a profit.
should be encouraged because it increases the likelihood that antique will be sold.
CORRECT should be discouraged because it lessens a quality that makes that antique desirable.

Question 20. Question :

<21{7[1(04)80]}> A company can either invest in employee training seminars or update its computer network. Since updating the computer network would result in more measurable benefits, the company would be best off updating its computer network.
The argument above assumes that:
Student Answer: investing in employee training seminars would yield negative results for the company.
CORRECT the more measurable a benefit, the greater value that benefit has to a company.
the employee training seminars would focus on teaching employees to use the updated computer network.
the benefit of the company investing in employee training seminars cannot be measured at all.

Question 21. Question :

<11{7[1(01)77]}> Detective: The robbery at the mall was carried out by a mall employee acting alone roughly one hour after the mall closed last Saturday night. The only employees present at the mall at the time of the robbery were security guards Evans and Clark. Since the mall’s surveillance system was disabled by the thief just before the robbery, the thief must be Evans.
The argument above would be valid if:
Student Answer: CORRECT Clark is incapable of disabling the mall’s surveillance system.
both Evans and Clark are capable of disabling the mall’s surveillance system.
Evans and Clark are the mall’s only security guards.
the mall’s surveillance system is usually used 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

Question 22. Question :

<11{7[3(08)84]}> The president spoke to 19 congressmen from Texas to encourage them to vote for a bill. Since four of the 19 congressmen went on to vote for the bill, it is clear that the president persuaded those four to vote the way they did.
The argument above assumes that:
Student Answer: the bill will not pass because a majority of Texas congressmen did not vote for it.
the Texas congressmen who voted against the bill were persuaded by someone other than the president to vote the way they did.
the president did not try to influence the votes of any congressmen outside of Texas.
CORRECT the four Texas congressmen who voted for the bill were against it before they spoke to the president.

Question 23. Question :

<11{8[1(04)92]}> The very large increase in allergies over the last thirty years is due to the great success of immunizations administered over this time period. Since immunizations have nearly eliminated life-threatening diseases such as polio, the human immune system increasingly targets other environmental substances in order to keep working properly. Allergy symptoms such as runny nose and itchy eyes result when the immune system attacks pollen that is breathed in from the air.
Which one of the following best expresses the main point of the passage above?
Student Answer: Immunizations often have surprising side effects.
Immunizations have been very successful in eliminating life-threatening diseases.
Viruses that once caused polio now cause allergies.
CORRECT The use of immunizations has led to an increase in allergies.

Question 24. Question :

<11{8[1(10)98]}> Sometimes people get caught in a “downward spiral,” a case in which something leads to a result which in turn leads to more of the original thing, bringing on more of the result. As the process continues, the result continually gets worse and worse. An example is when people turn to binge eating when depressed, which causes them to put on weight and feel unhealthy, which then makes them more depressed, leading to more overeating, and so on.
The author is mainly concerned with:
Student Answer: convincing people not to overeat.
CORRECT explaining the process of the “downward spiral.”
showing how overeating can lead to depression.
showing how some processes lead to surprising results.

Question 25. Question :

<21{8[1(07)95]}> Political science professor: Many people insist that the Internet is revolutionizing the political process. They argue that Internet debates and online political polls and chat rooms give people greater access to political information. And they’re right that online political chatter increases daily. But offering or reading anonymous online opinions does not by itself make for active political participation. In the past one would attend a rally, protest, or town meeting to engage in real politics. Today, people sit passively in front of computer screens under the illusion that they are connecting with their fellow citizens.
Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the professor’s argument?
Student Answer: INCORRECT Internet debates and online political polls and chat rooms give people greater access to political information.
Political organizations of the past bear no resemblance to the political organizations of today.
CORRECT While the Internet has made more political content available, meaningful political involvement has decreased.
The Internet has revolutionized the political process because it has allowed many more political viewpoints to be expressed.

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