Calc

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1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data

cos(x) = -2

I was trying to solve that problem ignoring what people say about it not being defined and got a number strangely. I showed step by step so you can tell me what I did wrong as I don't think I did anything wrong what so ever.



2. Relevant equations

In work below

3. The attempt at a solution

e^(ix) = cosx + i sinx = cisx
e^(-ix) = cosx - i sinx = cis(-x)
cis(x) + cis(-x) = cosx + i sin x + cosx - i sinx = 2cosx
from which
cosx = (cis(x) + cis(-x) )/2
from which I set it equal to -2 and began to solve
cosx = (cis(x) + cis(-x) )/2 = -2
Multipled by 2 on both sides
cis(x) + cis(-x) ) = -4
Multipled by cisx on both sides
cis^2(x) + 1 = -4cis(x)
set equal to zero by adding -4cis(x) to both sides
cis^2(x) + 4cis(x) + 1 = 0
solved the quadratic for cis(x)
(-4 +/- sqrt(4^2-4(1)))/2
= -2 +/- sqrt(16 - 4)/2
= -2 +/- sqrt(12)/2
= -2 +/- (2sqrt(3))/2
= -2 +/- sqrt(3)
cis(x) = -2 +/- sqrt(3) = e^(ix)
solved for x took natural log of both sides
ln(-2 +/- sqrt(3)) = ln( e^(ix) )
took out exponents and used ln(e) = 1
ln(-2 +/- sqrt(3)) = ix
divided through by i
ln(-2 +/- sqrt(3)) /i = x
simpified for +/-
for +
ln(-2 + sqrt(3)) /i = x
for -
ln(-2 - sqrt(3)) /i
factored out negative one
ln(-(2 + sqrt(3))/i
used the fact that ln(xy) = lnx + lny
( ln(-1) + ln(2 + sqrt(3)) )/i
used the fact that ln(-1) = i pi
( i pi + ln(2 + sqrt(3)) )/i
canceled out the i
pi + ln((2 + sqrt(3)) )/i = x

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