posted by rfvv .
1. He painted the emperor a gold tree.
2. He painted a gold tree for the emperor.
3. He painted a gold tree to the emperor.
(Are they all grammatical? Which preposition do we have to use?)
4. Ma Liang kept painting.
(Ma Liang is a person's name. What is the part of speech of 'painting'? Is it 'a gerund' of 'a present participle'? Is 'painting' the subject complement or the object of the verb'kept'?)
#2 is the best. #1 may be grammatically correct, but at first glance "he painted the emperor!" #3 is incorrect.
Here "painting" is the present participle of the verb "to paint."