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Write the gerund phrase in each sentence. Then indicate whether the phrase functions as a subject (S), an object of preposition (OP), a direct object (DO), an indirect object (IO), or a predicate nominative (PN).

Are these Correct?!

3. Morales learned quickly, and soon he started winning junior championships.
ANSWER: winning junior championships, (PN)

4. As a student at Stanford University, he attracted attention by winning 11 NCAA championships.
ANSWER: winning 11 NCAA championships, (OP)

10. He touched people’s hearts by winning a gold medal in the 100-meter butterfly.
ANSWER: winning a gold medal in the 100-meter butterfly, (OP)


  • English -

    4 and 10 are now correct.

    For number 3, predicate nouns follow linking verbs and mean the same as the subject. But started is not a linking verb, so the gerund phrase can't be a PN.

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