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Short answer question:

#22. Describe the three steps required to make steel.

My answer:

There are three steps required to make steel, which include: Iron smelting, Steelmaking, and Steel finishing. The first step, iron smelting, produces pig iron which is the basic input for steel making. This operation is done by using a blast furnace, which has alternating layesr of iron ore, coke, and limestone added to it. Then, very hot air is blown into the bottom of the furnace making the coke burn, causing the iron ore to melt. During the melting, limestone joins with impurities to form slag. The slag floats on the molten airon and can be drawn off, this leaves molten iron with carbon dissolved in it. This final material is called pig iron. The second step, steelmaking, starts with the pig iron produced in the first step, iron smelting. Steelmaking removes some carbon from the iron, heat and oxygen are used to take some of the carbon out of molten pig iron. Using the basic-oxygen furnace, there are three steps to making steel. The first is charging, in which the furnace tilts to one side to receive pig iron, scrap steel, and flux. This charge provides the basic ingredients for steel. The second step is refining, in which the furnace moves into an upright position and the charge is melted. Then, a water-cooled oxygen lance is placed above the molten material forcing pure oxygenout of the lance into the iron at supersonic speeds. The oxygen causes the part of the carbon to burn away, producing steel and slag. The final step is tapping, in which the floating slag is skimmed off the melt. The entire furnace tips to one side and the steel is poured out. The last step to making steel is the steel finishing step, which changes molten steel into sheets, plates, rods, beams, and bars. First, the steel is poured into ingots or into the head end of a continous caster. A continuous caster solidifies the molten steel into shapes called slabs, billets, and blooms.

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