calculus
posted by Hal .
Consider line segments which are tangent to a point on the right half (x>0) of the curve y = x^2 + 1 and connect the tangent point to the xaxis. If the tangent point is close to the yaxis, the line segment is long. If the tangent point is far from the yaxis, the line segment is also very long. Which tangent point has the shortest line segment?
(Suppose C is a positive number. What point on the curve has first coordinate equal to C? What is the slope of the tangent line at that point? Find the xintercept of the resulting line. Compute the distance between the point on the curve and the xintecept, and find the minimum of the square of that distance (minimizing the square of a positive quantity gets the same answer as minimizing the quantity, and here we get rid of a square root).)

following the hints suggested:
let the point be (c,c^2 + 1)
dy/dx = 2x
so at (c,c^2+1) the slope of the tangent is 2c
let the tangent equation be y = mx + b
y = 2cx + b
for our point,
c^2 + 1 = 2c(c) + b
b = 1c^2
so the tangent equation is
y = 2cx + 1c^2
at the xintercept,
0 = 2cx + 1c^2
x = (c^2  1)/(2c)
then using the distance formula
D^2 = (c^2+1)^2 + (c  (c^2  1)/(2c))^2
Ok, I will now expand this. At first I thought to differenctiate using quotient rule for the last term, but it looked rather messy
D^2 = c^4 + 2c^2 + 1 + c^2  c^2 + 1 + (c^42c^2+1)/(4c^2)
= c^4 + 2c^2 + 2 + (1/4)c^2  1/2 + (1/4)c^2
2D(dD/dc) = 4c^3 + 4c + c/2  1/(2c^3) = 0 for a max/min of D
8c^6 + 9c^4  1 = 0
getting really messy....
let a = c^2
solve 8a^3 + 9a^2  1 = 0
a=1 works !!!!!!
(a+1)(8a^2 + a  1) = 0
if a=1, c^=1 > no solution
8a^2 + a  1 = 0
a = (1 ± √33)/16 = .2965 or a negative
c^2 = .2965
c = .5145
Please, please check my arithmetic and algebra, the method is right! 
Thanks so much, but then do you plug in c back into the first point and tangent line and xintercept to get the x and y coordinates and tangent line equation and xintercept, respectively?

Can you explain to me how you found out the distance formula. Because how did you find out D^2 = c^4 + 2c^2 + 1 + c^2  c^2 + 1 + (c^42c^2+1)/(4c^2)? I understand the first part with c^4 + 2c^2 + 1, but I don't understand how you got the second part.

And isn't (c^42c^2+1)/(4c^2) supposed to be (c^4+2c^2+1)/(4c^2)?