biology

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1. What are the three parts that make up a nucleotide?



2. What is the sugar found in DNA?



3. What are the four different bases found in DNA nucleotides?



4. What two parts make up the sides of the DNA “ladder”?



5. What holds the sugars and the phosphates together?



6. What makes up the rungs of the DNA “ladder”?



7. To what part of the nucleotide are the rungs attached?



8. What is the “base-pairing” rule? How do the nucleotides pair together?



9. What holds the nitrogen bases together?



10. What best describes the shape of a DNA molecule?



11. Name three ways the RNA is chemically different from DNA.



12. What is replication?



13. What are the three steps involved in DNA replication.



14. How many strands of DNA act as a template?



15. What causes the DNA molecule to untwist and ”unzip”?



16. Where does replication occur?



17. What is true about the two new strands of DNA at the end of replication?



18. Why and when does DNA replication occur?



19. What is transcription?



20. What are the four steps involved in RNA transcription?



21. How many strands of DNA act as a template?



22. What are the three different types of RNA?



23. What is the function of mRNA?



24. Why is mRNA necessary?



25. What is translation?



26. What are the five steps involved in translation?



27. What is made during translation?



28. What is the function of rRNA?



29. What is a codon?



30. What is the function of tRNA?



31. What is an anticodon?



32. What type of bond forms between amino acids?



33. What codon starts the process of translation? Stops it?



34. What is a mutation?



35. What is the difference between a point and a frameshift mutation?



36. Which is worse, point or frameshift? Explain why.



37. What is a deletion mutation?



38. What is an insertion mutation?



39. What is an inversion mutation?



40. What is a translocation mutation?



41. What causes a non-disjunction mutation?



42. What is trisomy? Monosomy?

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