Sunday

August 2, 2015

August 2, 2015

Number of results: 104,326

**Science-PsyDAG**

PsyDAG, could you please check my post on that science experiment thing, if you have time. I posted it yesterday on here, but you were never on. Thanks:-)
*March 25, 2010 by Sara*

**drawls, math**

Did you mean the following for the problem: 10) perform the indicated operations 3 and 3/4 (divided by ) 1 and 3/8 . 3 3/4 - 1 3/8 . 15/4 (divided by ) 11/8= 30/11 =(after rounding it should be 2.73) thats how it suppost to be and look You use the inverse of the divisor, and ...
*November 25, 2006 by Jasmine20*

**6th grade science project for PsyDAG**

Thank You for answering PsyDAG. You asked what my hypothesis was. Here it is--Raising the temperature of the vegetable oil and thyme will increase the velocity of the mixture's movement. So is the question you responded to earlier, or actually late Saturday night correct??
*February 13, 2011 by Reed*

**math**

Miss Sue, is the answer that psydag give to Angel at 4:53 today correct? doesn't seem to add up
*January 29, 2015 by Missy*

**Math (for PsyDag)**

No sorry but that doesnt help, i tired using the formulae but i cant seem to get the correct ans, can you elaborate more please?
*July 20, 2009 by keisha*

**Eng1511**

Thank u, PsyDag
*August 8, 2014 by Carlee*

**math**

Write the probability as a decimal,percent and fraction. C) has a "50-50" chance D) will happen about 3 times out of 4 E) has 2 chances in 3 of happening C)0.5,50%,50/N D)0.75,75%,3/4 E)0.66,66%,2/3 Thanks!:) PsyDAG Is my Answer correct?
*March 11, 2010 by Anonymous*

**PsyDAG**

Thanks so much for the help with my narrative last night! =) -MC
*January 24, 2010 by mysterychicken*

**psychology**

Thanks so much for your help PsyDag. God Bless!!!!
*October 2, 2011 by bj*

**psydag**

Thank you I did not know this. You are welcome. I'm glad to be of some help. Best wishes for a Happy New Year!
*December 27, 2006 by jasmine20*

**visual basic( answer: array or progression)**

Hi Jon or PsyDAG! Both answers are incorrect! Thank you for trying.
*May 17, 2010 by christian*

**to PsyDAG**

i dont get when it says create your own set of multiplication flash cards for all tables from two to twelve
*July 26, 2012 by Celest*

**writeacher psydag bopursley**

i just wanted to say a big big thankyou ! for helping me with my assignment. :)
*October 5, 2009 by star*

**psydag-science**

thankyou for the websites you found the last one was perfect it helped alot thankyou again :)
*October 25, 2009 by Scooter*

**math**

thanks psyDAG for answering the question below but, can you show how to solve using an equation..x=length and y=width? a frame is made from a 28 inch length of trim and surrounds a 48 square inch picture. solve for the dimensions of the picture
*March 15, 2011 by Hailey*

**Psydag--stat**

An insurance company insures a person's antique coin collection worth $20,000 for an annual premium of $300. If the company figures that the probability of the collection being stolen is 0.002, what will be the company's expected profit?
*September 26, 2010 by Lori*

**To PsyDAG**

It has to be on Happiness, and I'm trying to think of a good title~metaphor that represents that state of mind. I'm trying to think of really good ones, but I can't really.
*April 29, 2010 by Sara*

**Science**

My original question: In a diploid organism with 2n=8, what is the probability that one of its gametes will contain only paternally derived chromosomes (ie, not a mixture of paternal and maternally derived chromosomes)? PsyDAG replied: Since 4 of the 8 are paternal, 4/8 * 3/7...
*September 24, 2010 by Axel*

**Social Psych**

Compare and contrast the two routes to persuasion. Which two routes to persuasion are you comparing and contrasting? We don't do your homework, but we will critique and offer suggestions for your ideas. Here are some articles that might be helpful: http://www.members.cox.net/...
*March 3, 2007 by Marie*

**PsyDAG homework check**

The monthly rents for the apartments in a building are listed below. $425, $550, $550, $550, $650, $650, $650, $650, $800, $900 Part A: Find the mean$637.50 median=$650 mode=$650 range=$475 and standard deviation of the rents????
*May 24, 2012 by jenny*

**science**

what are tow types of environment present in every habitat? I'm not sure what you are asking. The geological the the climate aspects are always present. Is this what you want? I hope this helps. If not, repost your question in more specific terms. Thanks for asking. All toes ...
*November 30, 2006 by jessica*

**Math (for PsyDag)**

This is the example i was given: The oranges in a box have a mass of 4680 gm.If the average mass of an orange is 97.5gm, find the number of oranges in the box. Total mass = average mass of an orange x number of oranges in the box. Therefore the number of oranges in the box= ...
*July 20, 2009 by keisha*

**Can u plz help me PsyDag?? Stats**

In testing a new drug, researchers found that 10% of all patients using it will have a mild side effect. A random sample of 14 patients using the drug is selected. Find the probability that: (A) exactly two will have this mild side effect (B) at least three will have this mild...
*October 25, 2011 by Jennifer*

**math**

As a a test of a new measurement process, 10 measurements are made on pieces of glass known to have conductivity 1. The average of the 10 measurements is 1.07. Indicate whether 1 and 1.07 is a parameter or statistic and explain why. I know 1.07 is a statistic. Please explain ...
*February 27, 2013 by Please help*

**Math Fractions**

Posted by Mary Mac on Friday, May 9, 2008 at 10:01am. I have this fraction: 6 2/9 + 1 3/4 - 3 5/6= Okay First I changed the mixed numbers into improper fractions. I got this: 56/9 + 7/4 + 23/6 Then I thought you have to find the least common denominator, which for 9,4, and 6 ...
*May 9, 2008 by Mary Mac*

**Math**

Post a New Question Current Questions Homework Help: Math (HELP PLEASE) Posted by Anonymous on Tuesday, September 17, 2013 at 8:37pm. Estimate the total precipitation in inches and in days for Asheville and Wichita. City: Inches: Days...
*September 19, 2013 by I need help on this to*

**English**

what could be some reasons to why abstract language is used? One reason is that the concept that is being dealt with is abstract. They cannot be sensed directly as can apples, grasshoppers and bricks. Concepts like freedom, evil, beauty, truth and love are abstract. I hope ...
*August 28, 2006 by Jamie*

**Statistics**

Kind attention Psydag: A random sample of size 20 from a normal population with sample mean 42 and sample standard deviation of 6 . To test the hypothesis the population mean 44 at 5% level of significance , find the p-value and comment Clarification: The sample size is 20 ...
*January 1, 2010 by Mrs. Lakshmi*

**English**

Posted by rfvv on Wednesday, May 20, 2015 at 9:00am. He is going to sleep. ================ Does this sentence mean #1 or #2? 1.He is sleeping. 2. He is going (to his room) so that he may sleep. English - PsyDAG, Wednesday, May 20, 2015 at 10:44am 2 English - Reed, Wednesday, ...
*May 20, 2015 by rfvv*

**Science**

I am reading about partial solar eclipses, and my book has this warning: CAUTION:Looking directly at even a tiny sliver of the sun during a solar eclipse can damage your eyesight permanently. Why do they give this warning specifically for eclipses? Is the sun more harmful to ...
*February 22, 2007 by Jenna*

**English**

Posted by rfvv on Thursday, April 22, 2010 at 10:41am. 1. When is Chris's homework due? 2. When is Chris' homework due? (Which one is the correct possessive case of Chris? Is it "Chris's"? How do we pronounce "Chris's? Can't we use "chris'"as a possessive case?) English - ...
*April 22, 2010 by rfvv*

**history to psyDag**

I'm talking about the workers project administration and I think I will be studying who or how many workers built buildings. I also want to know where they were built. Thanks, Mak This site will give you statistics and general information on the WPA. http://en.wikipedia.org/...
*November 26, 2006 by mak*

**algebra**

Minute hand of a clock is 10 inches long. how far does the tip of the minute hand move in 15 seconds? I got that=5 pi BUT What speed is it moving in miles/hr???? algebra - PsyDAG, Sunday, November 13, 2011 at 1:38am Assuming it does move 5 pi, convert 5 * 3.1416 = 15.7 inches ...
*November 13, 2011 by Angela*

**Introduction to the Criminal Justice System**

To whom it may concern: There was a posting on August 31, 06 in response to "Can someone proofread before submission?" and it was posted by PsyDAG. I was wondering if someone could tell me who or where I could find the in text references? They are; Schmalleger 2005, Pasquier,...
*November 16, 2006 by Jo*

**English**

Posted by rfvv on Friday, August 29, 2014 at 11:22pm. 1.Thank you for visiting our nursing home. It was great fun last weekend. ------------------------ In Sentence 1, what does 'It" refer to? 2. Look at the elderly person. 3. Look at the elderly people. --------------- Are ...
*September 3, 2014 by rfvv*

**Algebra**

I am stuck, pleas help, i have the example but I am still not able to figure it out... Find the value of X...5/x+6+2/x^2+7x+6=3/X+1 Find the value of X...2/5=x-2/20 First, get the X terms on one side of the equation and the numbers on the other. 2/5=X-2/20 2/5+2/20 = X Change ...
*May 23, 2007 by Helpless Again*

**math**

how can you figure out how to do a fractal triangle. how do you figure out how write the expression? Since this is not my area of expertise, I searched Google under the key words "fractal triangle" to get these possible sources: http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/playground/...
*August 30, 2006 by Dillon*

**probability**

wooden balls are numbered 1-75. Five balls are drawn at random. What is the probability of drawing 5 consecutive numbers if no replacement occurs.? The first ball has a 1/75 chance of being selected. The second ball can be from either above or below the first, so it has a 2/74...
*December 11, 2006 by matt*

**English**

Posted by rfvv on Monday, September 1, 2014 at 8:28am. Q: What can you do for the school? 1. I can clean the floor of my classroom. 2. I can clean the floor of the hallway of my classroom. 3. I can clean the stairs with a mop. 4. I can pick up trash on the flower pots and on ...
*September 2, 2014 by rfvv*

**Prob and stats\ math**

grading on a curve results in what percent of F's? It depends where you set your cutting points. for example, if you use Z = -2 as your cutting point, the percent below that point, approximately 2.5%, would get F's. However, the cutting point can be arbitrarily set above or ...
*December 20, 2006 by Anonymous*

**PsyDAG please help me.**

Secondary Vignette for Cognitive Learning Theory The state department of education requires that all high school teachers in the state receive training in Structured English Immersion methods (SEI). The purpose is to provide teachers with instructional ideas that help their ...
*September 15, 2008 by PJ*

**English**

Posted by rfvv on Wednesday, September 3, 2014 at 7:22am. Posted by rfvv on Friday, August 29, 2014 at 11:22pm. 1.Thank you for visiting our nursing home. It was great fun last weekend. ------------------------ In Sentence 1, what does 'It" refer to? 2. Look at the elderly ...
*September 3, 2014 by rfvv*

**english**

what is the plural form of turkey. i think it is turkie am i right can somebody help me If you look up the word in a hard copy dictionary (as I did), you would find that the plural is turkeys. Looking it up yourself will get you similar answers more quickly. I holpe this helps...
*July 25, 2007 by mario*

**Social Studies**

Who were the Sioux and what did they do in their everyday lives? Since this is not my area of expertise, I searched Google under the key words "Sioux Indians" to get these possible sources: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14017a.htm (Broken Link Removed) http://www....
*October 10, 2006 by Nicole*

**English**

Posted by PsyDAG on Tuesday, September 5, 2006 at 7:32pm. Although prejudice is often defined as a negative attitude, we all have prejudices (biases) toward almost everything we consider. Differences occur in terms of how extreme our bias is and how much it influences our ...
*December 19, 2006 by Writeacher*

**PSYCHOLOGY-DEPERATE FOR HELP!!**

CHOSE THE APPROPRIATE EXAMPLE FOR THE FOLLOWING SITUATION: Cameron is trying to figure out how to win Courtney's affection. He remembers that his previous girlfriend used to love when he gave her a massage. Cameron is using the heuristic strategy of which of the following: 1....
*November 2, 2006 by MaryBeth*

**economics**

could we ever achieve an unemployment rate below full employment? What problems might we encounter if it did? I'm not sure if I understand your question. To my knowledge, we can never achieve full employment in the United States. It is always "an unemployment rate below full ...
*March 20, 2007 by Kayla*

**Discussion Board**

1. Using chapter 13 of your text and Cybrary resources, which personality theory do you think offers the best explanation for how an individual's personality develops? Why? Defend your answer including citations of the appropriate literature on personality theory. 2. Identify ...
*September 21, 2006 by candy*

**Unit 5 - Group project**

Your group has been hired by an advertising firm that is developing a series of commercials for family-oriented products geared toward the entire family. They want to develop a series of commercials that will target family members at various life stages. Your group needs to ...
*September 21, 2006 by candy*

**American Government**

Is the Freedom of the Press still a right worth preserving? What do you think? Personally I think it is although I believe the "press" sometimes abuse the right. I think the press speaks too much. I don't know. I mean all that is on the news is about overseas - Newspapers tell...
*September 24, 2006 by Melyssa*

**Rhetoric**

How does one distinguish between prejudicial and nonprejudicial when using rhetorical divices? Posted by Ms. Sue on Tuesday, June 20, 2006 at 9:47am. Check these sites to help you answer your question. (Broken Link Removed) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhetoric...
*November 22, 2006 by Michelle*

**Critical Thinking**

As answered several times before -- Posted by Ms. Sue on Tuesday, June 20, 2006 at 9:47am. Check these sites to help you answer your question. (Broken Link Removed) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhetoric ----------------------- Posted by Ms. Sue on Monday, July 10, 2006 at 6:...
*December 5, 2006 by Writeacher*

**English**

What is the role of rhetoric in influencing people's attitudes and beliefs? Posted by Ms. Sue on Tuesday, June 20, 2006 at 9:47am. Check these sites to help you answer your question. (Broken Link Removed) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhetoric ----------------------- Posted by ...
*December 6, 2006 by Catrice*

**Another comment PsyDAG**

Homework Help Forum: Psychology -- anyone please? Current Questions | Post a New Question Answer this Question | Further Reading Posted by Anonymous on Friday, July 21, 2006 at 4:40pm. First of all when you're talking about feeding I believe that would be hard wired of course...
*July 21, 2006 by Anonymous*

**writing**

• Post your response to this question: What is the role of rhetoric in influencing people's attitudes and beliefs? How can readers distinguish between prejudicial and non-prejudicial use of rhetorical devices? Posted by Ms. Sue on Tuesday, June 20, 2006 at 9:47am. Check these ...
*October 24, 2006 by jazmin*

**writing**

What is the role of rhetoric in influencing people's attitudes and beliefs? How can readers distinguish between prejudicial and non-prejudicial use of rhetorical devices? Please see the following responses to this same set of questions: ------------------- Posted by Ms. Sue on...
*November 21, 2006 by tasha*

**RHETORIC**

What is the role of rhetoric in influencing peoples attitudes amd beliefs? How can readers distinguish between prejudicial and nonprejudicial us of rhetorical devices? Posted by Ms. Sue on Tuesday, June 20, 2006 at 9:47am. Check these sites to help you answer your question. (...
*October 3, 2006 by DEON*

**critical thinking**

how can readers distinguish beteen prejudicial and non-prejudicial use of rhetorical devices This is an excellent site on propaganda techniques: http://www.propagandacritic.com/ Be sure to also check out the links here -- all from previous postings of the same question...
*November 20, 2006 by sharon*

**Science-PsyDAG**

We did a experiment to recognize chemical change and here it is: I'm listing what we did, step by step. 1. Put on your safety goggles. In one row of your spot plate, add five drops of the sodium hydroxide solution to each of four deprssions. Then add two drops of copper(||) ...
*March 24, 2010 by Sara*

**Math...For All Math Tutors**

I would like to know how many of the people answering math questions here are current math teachers, were math teachers at one time, are current tutors working for a tutoring company or simply love math. What's your story? I would love to hear from all math tutors. Thanks, ...
*February 15, 2008 by Guido*

**math**

all i can say is math stinx dont mess with math. without math, a lot of things wouldn't exist right now...
*October 9, 2006 by Anonymous*

**math**

I just do not understand how to figure this out. Find the number of subsets of the given set. {math, English, history, science, art} Would I do something like this: 1. {} 2. Math 3. English 4. history 5. science 6. art 7. Math and English 8. math and history 9. math and ...
*April 14, 2010 by Bart*

**LNU**

math In a class of 50 students it was found 21 are taking English 14 are taking Math 28 are taking History 7 are taking Math and English 10 are taking Math and History 11 are taking History and English 3 are taking all three courses 1.)Make a Venn Diagram summarizing these ...
*July 13, 2015 by generose*

**abit of everythingURGENTDUETOMORROW**

malevolent is to kind as miserly is to infant is to child as teenager is to flower is to biology as acid is to delineate is to outline as evaluate is to mildew is to plant as dugong is to ostler is to horse as______is to ____ sheep____ first public performance of a play ...
*August 10, 2005 by Sandy*

**English Grammar**

A: What time is your math/Math class? B: At eleven forty-five. Do we have to use 'math' or 'Math'? And is it a common noun or a proper noun?
*April 18, 2008 by John*

**Math**

Is IB Math Studies the same as Pre-Calculus? I heard that IB Math Studies is for students who have a low background in math. Is that right?
*August 20, 2013 by Anonymous*

**3rd grade Math**

Actual question on homework."EXPLAIN HOW YOU CAN BREAK APART ARRAYS WHEN YOU MULTIPLY BY 3." (there is no array on the paper to use) I don't like this new math, what was wrong with the old math I learned, I am Accounting /Finance supervisor, but don't understand this math.
*January 21, 2010 by Jennfer*

**math math math math**

a. what is the general term of the following series? 60/121-30/11+15-... +219 615/16 b. how many terms does the series have?
*January 10, 2011 by Anonymous*

**What Makes A Good Math Teacher?**

I think a good math teacher is someone who can explain math topics at the level of students. A good math teacher is someone who does not try to impress students with his or her math skills (college math professors are famous for boasting). In your opinion, what makes a good ...
*February 22, 2008 by Guido*

**help**

Hello, I posted this question awhile back but now that I got the answer from my advisor I need help I don't know where to look I went to factfinder for the answer and can't find it. I need to write a first person fictional journal entry of a subordinate group and I chose ...
*June 26, 2006 by clark*

**Math**

All of my life I have gotten a C average in math. I have been trying to set a goal to make above a C in math. I don't know why I have trouble with math. Can someone help me?
*August 18, 2011 by Aquion*

**English**

Revise the folloing sentences to create parallel constructions. (Question) Some students hate math; some students dislike math, and math is liked by other students. (my answer) Some students hate math, some dislike math, and some like math. every way I have tried it just doesn...
*June 30, 2010 by Rita*

**To Michael**

Here's the question you posted in response to another student. "Ms.Sue do you mind if i ask were you a math teacher or are you just a genius at math and why do you do this help online do you get any benefit for doing this?" I taught a couple of sections of 7th grade math -- ...
*November 4, 2011 by Ms. Sue*

**math 098**

I made 3 f's on my tests in math 098, do you think i need to withdraw and take math 090 instead. this is my first semester and i really want to do my best please help. math 098 is algebra math 090 is basic for college. the score were equations--52,distance problems---55, ...
*July 6, 2012 by %%%Rena%%%*

**math math math!**

A cruise ship travelled 84 km in 3.5 h. At this rate, how long will it take to travel 1050 km?
*November 1, 2008 by jazz*

**math**

forgot my math book at school, i need the questions saxon math grage 6 lesson 14
*September 13, 2010 by kolbi*

**math**

What strategies can you use to help students cope with math anxiety? How can you make math class interesting and fun as well as relevant?
*October 21, 2008 by sally*

**Self-Taught Mathematicians**

Those of us who love math certainly know two basic facts about Mr. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: (1) He and Newton (our calculus guy) did not get along AND (2) Mr. Leibniz was a self-taught mathematician My question is for all tutors here who love math. What is your view of ...
*February 22, 2008 by Guido*

**Math- Algebra 1 **

Im doing extra credit since my math test didn't go so well but im stuck on a question (Wish i had my math book). Please help. Q: 3.8y - 4.7 + 3.8y + 17.5
*November 23, 2010 by Shilo*

**Math :):):):):):):):):):):):):)**

Sarsh is currently at 83.7% in math. She has just finished a worksheet that is out of 30. She got 30/30 which is full marks. What percent is she at now in math?
*November 27, 2012 by Winnie*

**math**

Hi my son has a very hard time with math.I'm his mom and I'm not good at math.so I'm hoping that I can get help here cause I can't afford a tutor.please help him
*August 29, 2013 by azionte*

**Tips Plz**

Can you plz tell me some studying tips for math. How can i study math? is not like the other subject that i can just read through and memorize it. Math is hard to study because i know know how to study math when i have a upcoming test. Plz give me tips on how to study math and...
*December 16, 2014 by Laura ♥*

**math**

I have to take up math 100 for college can you give me tips on what to study?Im taking up nursing and i was told i need alot of math..
*February 9, 2012 by renak*

**math**

I need a little help on my math.Lesson 5: Square Roots and Irrational Numbers Math 7 B Unit 2: Measurement. on CONNECTIONS ACADEMY. PLEASE :-(
*February 25, 2015 by Makeyla*

**math**

Will you help me with my math homework? what level of math? Please repost with the specific problems, so we can help. Thanks for asking.
*February 21, 2007 by morgan*

**Math**

A math book is .78 centimeters thick. What is the width of 21 math books on a shelf?
*October 14, 2010 by TJ*

**math**

for every 20 math books a school buys, they they get 7 aditional books for free. The school needs 297 math books. What is the total number of math books the school must buy in order to receive 297 math books in all?
*February 8, 2012 by ali*

**math 3rd grade**

what is an arrary ? look for the answer in the back of your math book...there may be a glossary An array is a table of numbers. can you help me with my math homework on internet
*May 1, 2007 by angel*

**math**

I Need Help On My Math Evaluates: Okay So I Have This Quiz Im Taking And Its Telling Me " Evaluate 3-1/3 to the power of 4" I Am A Little Rusty On My Math So Can Someone Please Help! :) Thanks.. Adrienne Deleon
*March 22, 2011 by Adrienne*

**math**

on Tuesday, elena completed 20 of her math homework in 36 minutes. At that same rate, how long will it take her to complete 35 items for wendy's math home work
*January 15, 2015 by jake*

**Probability**

At a certain university, 30% of the students major in math. Of the students majoring in math, 60% are males. Of all the students at the university, 70% are males. a) What is the probability that a student selected at random in the university is male and majors in math? b) What...
*October 27, 2006 by Cari*

**statistics**

At a certain college, 15% of the students receieved an A in their required math cousre, 10% receieved an A in their required chemistry course, and 5% receieved an A in both. A student is selected at random. a.) What is the probability that he received an A in either chemistry ...
*October 4, 2009 by Sharon*

**Math**

here is the question: Freida must take a 4-hour exam containing 200 questions, 50 of which are math. Twice as much time should be allowed for each math ques as for each other type of question. What is the total # of minutes she should allow for the math question?
*November 12, 2009 by Sophia*

**MATH**

In a fraternity with 38 members , 18 take math, 5 take both math and literature and 8 take neither math or literature. how many take literature but not math? I came up with 16 is that correct or am i lost ?
*November 24, 2014 by WINSTON*

**math math math .**

The coefficient of the first term in the polynomial 2x^2y+3xy-1 is _?_
*October 24, 2008 by margiee (: !*

**MATH OMG HELP PLEEESE**

Sarsh is currently at 83.7% in math. She has just finished a worksheet that is out of 30. She got 30/30 which is full marks. What percent is she at now in math? I HAVE NO IDEA!!!!!!
*November 28, 2012 by WINNIE*

**Comm/215**

Q: Some students hate math, some students dislike math, and math is liked by other students. Parallel Construction A: Some students hate math, some dislike math, and some like math. Is this correct?
*June 17, 2010 by David*

**math**

what are your feelings about math, rate your math anxiety, and describe what coping mechanisms might be helpful to you and your I like math. What matters is what YOUR feelings amd "coping mechanisms" are.
*March 4, 2007 by carmen*

**math**

who created math God. Math is a symbolic language used to express ideas in the form of sentences and statements that attempt to make somewhat precise decisions about nature.
*February 8, 2007 by jose*

**English**

1. He can not solve the math problem. 2. He cannot solve the math problem. 3. He can't solve the math problem. 4. He could not solve the math problem. 5. He couldnot solve the math problem. 6. He couldn't solve the math problem. (Are they all grammatical? What about #5? Is it ...
*July 16, 2013 by rfvv*