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September 21, 2014

Search: Chemistry, pH, Buffers

Number of results: 45,367

Chemistry
3 buffers in the human body and what are their conjugate acid-base pairs? I have Bicarbonate Buffer, Phosphate/Ammonia Buffer, and Protein Buffers, where my confusion lies in what would be there conjugate acid base pairs.......
November 12, 2011 by Mandie

Chemistry
An industrial chemist studying bleaching and sterilizing prepares several hypochlorite buffers. Find the pH of the following buffers. (a) 0.090 M HClO and 0.090 M NaClO (b) 0.090 M HClO and 0.135 M NaClO (c) 0.135 M HClO and 0.090 M NaClO (d) One liter of the solution in part...
March 4, 2013 by Edward

chemistry
How do basic and acidic buffers resist pH ?
September 23, 2010 by CHELsea

chemistry
if there were no buffers in our blood, what would happen when we drank something acidic?
July 14, 2011 by ana

Chemistry
Name 3 buffers that exist in the human body? Include the conjugate and acid base pairs
November 11, 2011 by Monique

chemistry
1. Compare the effects of adding the strong acid & base to the pH of water vs. the acetate and phosphate buffers.
October 24, 2012 by hi

Chemistry - buffers
Laborant got a task to make a buffer, which pH = 8.00. Which same concentration solutions and which ratio would you suggest him to mix?
March 26, 2012 by Anonymous

biochemistry with more info that was needed
Calculate the weight of the buffers you will use to make the buffers for Part A for all the buffer possibilities listed under procedures in Part A, step 1. In other words, how many grams do you need to make 100 mL of a 0.1 M buffer? Buffer pKa1 pKa2 pKa3 formula wt.(g/mol) ...
January 27, 2008 by stew

College Chemistry
Calculate the ratio of NaF to HF required to create a buffer with pH=3.95. Also, can you please explain in a nutshell the whole concept of buffers? Thanks!
March 23, 2010 by Katie

chemistry - buffers
what mass of sodium acetate should be dissolved in 1.00L of acetic acid, 0.150M concentration, in order to produce a buffer with pH = 4.5?. Ka of CH3COOH = 1.8x10^-5
April 12, 2010 by Reen

bio chemistry
calculate the PH of each of the following buffers prepared by placing in 1.0 L of solution 0.10 mol NH3 and 0.10 mol of NH4CL
March 2, 2012 by samar

chemistry
Since amino acids and proteins carry proton-accepting and proton-donating groups, they can act as a.buffers b.enzymes c.isomers d.vitamins
December 11, 2011 by anonymous

Chemistry (buffers)
Say, for example, that you had prepared a Buffer C, in which you mixed 8.203 g of sodium acetate, NaC2H3O2, with 100.0 mL of 1.0 M acetic acid. a. What would be the initial pH of Buffer C? HOW???????
March 15, 2012 by James

Chemistry- Buffers
a buffer is prepared by mixing .208 L of 0.452 M HCl and 0.5 L of 0.4 M sodium acetate. When the Ka= 1.8 x 10^-5 I figured out that the pH= 4.74 but then it asks how many grams of KOH must be added to the buffer to change the pH by .155 units?
December 5, 2010 by Mikey

Chemistry - buffers
Two burettes are filled with solutions: one with 0,1OM CH3COOH solution, second with 0,15M CH3COONa. How many milliliters each solution will need to make 20mL of solution, which pH=4.85
March 26, 2012 by Anonymous

chemistry
Which one of the following mixtures is suitable for making buffers? 1 H3PO4 and NaH2PO4 2 Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 3 NH4Cl and NH3 a. 1 only b. 2 only c. 3 only d. 1 and 2 only e. 1, 2, and 3
May 13, 2010 by zacky

Steph
Buffers work by converting _____ to ____.
November 1, 2011 by Chemistry

Chemistry -buffers.
The pH of an arterial blood sample is 7.15. upon acidification of 10 ml of the plasma 5.91ml of CO2 is produced at standard temperature and presure. Calculate-a) total CO2 in the specimen b)the individual concentration of disolved CO2(H2CO3) and HCO3- c)The partial pressure of...
November 6, 2011 by Maria

Science- Chemistry
How many grams of sodium acetate( molar mass 82.03 g/mol) must me added to 1.00L of a 0.200M acetic acid solution to form a buffer of 4.20?Ka value for aceic acid is 1.8 x 10^-5. How do I go about finding the grams from the given information? http://www.chembuddy.com/?left=pH-...
June 2, 2007 by Catherine

Chem
.1 M HCl + .1 M NaCl .1 M HF + .1 M NaF .1 M HBr + .1 M NaBr Which of the above would be considered buffers?
April 22, 2008 by Confused

chemistry buffers
What molar ratio of HPO4 2- to H2PO4 - in solution would produce a pH of 7.0? Phosphoric acid (H3PO4), a triprotonic acid, has pKa values: 2.14, 6.86, and 12.4. Only one of the pKa values is relevant here. how do i know which pka value to use.. please explain
September 9, 2012 by ron

Chemistry
Buffers- Common Ion effect IS this Correct Calculate the pH of a aqueous solution containing 0.15 M HNO2 and 0.20 M NaNO2 (aq). The Ka of nitrous acid is 4.0*10^-4. HNO2 + H20 <--> NaNO2- + H30^+ Inital 0.15 0.20 X Final 0.15 0.20 Ka= [H30+][NaNO2]/ [HNO2] 4.0*10^-4 = [...
August 11, 2009 by Saira

chemistry (buffers)
How can weak acid nitrous acid HNO2 form a buffer solution with equal concentrations and volumes with weak base NH3? I thought that buffer solutions only occured between weak acids and strong bases or vice versa. The example above as two weak soltuions.
September 1, 2008 by mike

E.M.U
For the same solution components as in part (f), buffers are prepared with a total concentration of NH3 + NH4Cl = 0.10 M. The pH values are 8.0, 8.5, 9.0, 9.5, 10.0, 10.5, and 11.0. Find the molar solubility of CdS in these solutions
March 26, 2014 by k.sina

buffers
9.00mL of 1.10M CH3COOH and 1.00mL of 0.900M CH3COO- what is the pH?
March 3, 2010 by Reen

Electronics
Here we examine noise in a digital channel between an AND gate and an inverter shown in Figure 16. The channel has a length of D=30m and noise is added in at the rate of 0.6Vm. To correct for that noise, we introduce non-inverting buffers into the channel. The purpose of a ...
May 3, 2013 by AmmanJordan

Chemistry
Sodium methanoate, NaHCOO, and methanoic acid, HCOOH, can be used to make a buffer solution. Explain how this combination resists changes in pH when small amounts of acid or base are added. Buffers kind of confuse me and I'm not sure how to start this. Can someone help me to ...
April 4, 2013 by a Canadian

chemistry
A buffer is prepared by dissolving .0250 mol of sodium nitrite, NaNO2, in 250.0 mL of .0410 M nitrous acid, HNO2. Assume no volume change after HNO2 is dissolved. Calculate the pH of this buffer. My book does a poor job of explaining buffers and I'm really lost on the concept...
April 29, 2007 by Simpson

Analytical chemistry
What is a pH of 20 mL of 0.08 M NH3 added to 40 mL of 0.04 M HCl? NH3 + HCl = NH4+ + Cl- c(NH3)=(0.02L * 0.08M)/0.06L= 0.02667 M c(HCl)=(0.04L * 0.04M)/0.06L= 0.02667 M c(NH4+)=c(HCl) Kb=[NH4+][OH-]/[NH3] Kb=1.76*10^(-5) So i tried to calculate it like this: Kb=[OH-] pOH=4....
September 2, 2013 by Gloria

Chem Lab
Can the NH3/NH4Cl system be sued to prepare a buffer of a pH 9.5? why or why not? Can it prepare a buffer of pH 5? There were two buffers, 0.2 M and 0.1M.
April 11, 2012 by Logan

chemistry lab
Could someone help me with this? i am tired of it. here is my data from lab: Buffer1: HPO4- weight 3.412g; original pH Buffer 2: HEPES wt: 1.090g original pH 10.08 buffer1: pH of 0.1M: 7.5; pH of 0.01: 7.72; pH of 0.001M: 7.87 buffer2: PH of 0.1M: 7.5 ph of 0.01 M: 7.42 pH of ...
February 1, 2008 by amanda

Chemistry- Acids and Buffers
Cyanic Acid is a weak acid HOCN + H2O <--> H3O+ +OCN- ka= 3.5*10^-4 a) if 2.5ml of 0.01 M cyanic acid solution is added to 25.0 ml of a formis acid buffer with ph = 3.70, what is the ratio of [OCN-]/[HOCN] in the resulting solution? b) determine the pH of a 0.500 M ...
April 9, 2012 by Tasneem

Biochem
HEPES, is a commonly used component of physiological buffers. The PKa of the protonated amino group of HEPES is 7.55 at 25C. Describe the preparation of 1.00L of 0.100M HEPES buffer, pH 8.00, from the sodium salt of the basic form of HEPES (MW 260.3), .0M HCL and deionized water
September 13, 2010 by Angel

Biology
I know that the phosphate [cells] and sodium barcarbonate [blood plasma] buffer systems are two examples of biological buffers; however, i am writing an essay for bio and i need a third example. does anyone know of a third biological buffer system?
January 12, 2008 by Jake

Biochemistry
Sorry! HEPES, is a commonly used component of physiological buffers. The PKa of the protonated amino group of HEPES is 7.55 at 25C. Describe the preparation of 1.00L of 0.100M HEPES buffer, pH 8.00, from the sodium salt of the basic form of HEPES (MW 260.3), 6.0M HCl and ...
September 14, 2010 by Angel

chem( buffers)
Does water have a high buffering capacity? Why is it important to know it buffering capacity of water?
August 28, 2010 by lou

Chemistry, pH, Buffers
Please help!! Given this data: mass of unknown acid 1.4671g Volume of NaOH used in titration 18.47mL Concentration of the NaOH used 0.2403M pH of the original acid solution 2.16 pH of the final acid solution 3.49 Show me how do I calculate the Ka of the unknown acid and the ...
April 2, 2012 by Krina

Biology(Anatomy&Physiology)
1)Which group of organic molecules makes up your genetic code 2)A substance which tends to resist a change in the pH of a solution is called a 3)Which buffers is the most common in the body 4)Which of molecules is primarily made of CHON 5)Which is the building block or monomer...
October 15, 2008 by Stephanie

Chemistry, Buffers, pH
Hi could someone please help me in the next 5 minutes with this question: Given this data: mass of unknown acid 1.4671g Volume of NaOH used in titration 18.47mL Concentration of the NaOH used 0.2403M pH of the original acid solution 2.16 pH of the final acid solution 3.49 Show...
September 26, 2008 by janet

Chem--buffers
Explain why a mixture formed by mixing 100 mL of 0.100M CH3COOH and 50 mL of 0.100M NaOH will act as a buffer? in adittion to this, how do you identify if a an aqueous solution is a buffer solution, such as a solution with an acid and a base, but no common ion? is it possible ...
February 28, 2010 by Rav

biochemistry
A 20.0 mL sample of gastric juice was taken from a patient suspected of having hypochloridia (low stomach acid). The sample was taken several hours after a meal so there was no ingested food or drink, and it was assumed no buffers were present. The sample required 6.3 mL of 0....
January 13, 2013 by stoic-rider77

Chemistry
Describe how a buffer behaves. Your description should include an explanation of why the addition of NaOH to the HAc solution formed a buffer. What happens to the pH when a small quantity of a strong acid or base is added to a buffer solution? What happens to the pH of the ...
March 14, 2013 by Terrell

Chemistry
Select the statements that correctly describe buffers.? 1) The pH of a buffer solution does not change significantly when any amount of a strong acid is added. 2) The Ka of a buffer does not change when any amount of an acid is added to the buffer solution. 3) The pH of a ...
September 23, 2013 by Aria

Chemistry (repost)
Which of the following pairs of substances, when mixed in any proportion you wish, can be used to prepare a buffer solution? 1)NaCN and NaOH 2) HCl and NaOH 3) HCN and NaOH 4)HCl and NaCN 5) NaCN and HCN is the answer 1 and 5?? chem - DrBob222, Sunday, April 10, 2011 at 1:28am...
April 10, 2011 by Rachel

Chemistry
I did an experiment on Buffers: In a polystyrene beaker, mix 20 ml of 0.1M Acetic acid ad 25 ml of 0.1 M sodium acetate and immediately measure the pH. Remove the electrode and add 5 ml of 0.1 M HCL to this buffer. Stir the solution and measure the pH. This is my data: Conc.of...
July 16, 2009 by Saira

Biology
The following chemicals have the indicated formula weight Surcose = 342.3g; Potassium dihydrogen=136.09; and Tris=121.14 Also the following solution already made: 20%SDS, 5M NaCl, 500mM EDTA. You have a 40% glycerol solution, and 10X TBE. List the step to make the following ...
August 27, 2008 by Robert

Molecular cell Biology
The following chemicals have the indicated formula weights:Sucrose-342.3,Potassium dihydrogen phosphate(KH2PO40-136.09,Tris -121.14.You also have the following solutions made:20%SDS,5M NaCl,500mM EDTA.You have a 40%glycerol solution and 10X TBE.List the steps to make the ...
January 18, 2014 by Caroline

Chem 2
A popular buffer solution consist of carbonate (CO3 2-) and hydrogen carbonate (HCO3-) conjugate acid-base pair. Which, if any of the following such buffers has the highest buffer capacity? A. 0.9M CO3 2- and 0.1M HCO3- B. 0.1M CO3 2- and 0.9M HCO3- C. 0.5M CO3 2- and 0.5M ...
March 4, 2012 by Debbie

chemistry
I have already posted this and never got a response, please help. here is my data from lab: Buffer1: HPO4- weight 3.412g; original pH Buffer 2: HEPES wt: 1.090g original pH 10.08 buffer1: pH of 0.1M: 7.5; pH of 0.01: 7.72; pH of 0.001M: 7.87 buffer2: PH of 0.1M: 7.5 ph of 0.01...
February 3, 2008 by student

chem--buffers
Calculate [H30+] in a solution that is 0.0525M HCl and 0.768M NaC2H3O2. Ka(HC2H3O2)= 1.8 x10^-5. the way i did it is that i used the given molar of HCl to find the moles of Hydronium in the acid, and then i used that to find the moles of OH- in it, using kw. then thru the ...
March 7, 2010 by Rav

Chemistry
I actually posted this up before and Gk helped out but i don't understand the steps what do i enter for the pka for the first one? __________________________________________ I did an experiment on Buffers: In a polystyrene beaker, mix 20 ml of 0.1M Acetic acid ad 25 ml of 0.1 ...
July 19, 2009 by Saira

Chemistry
I just did a lab on Acids and Bases and I am having trouble with the lab questions I was given to complete. Concentration of NaOH: 0.09999 M Volume of NaOH: 3.25 mL # moles of NaOH: 0.325 moles Initial Concentration of Weak Acid: ? (How do we calculate this) Part 2: Hydrolysis...
March 29, 2009 by Lalu

Chemistry (Acids and Bases)
I just did a lab on Acids and Bases and I am having trouble with the lab questions I was given to complete. Concentration of NaOH: 0.09999 M Volume of NaOH: 3.25 mL # moles of NaOH: 0.325 moles Initial Concentration of Weak Acid: ? (How do we calculate this) Part 2: Hydrolysis...
March 29, 2009 by Lalu

chemistry
How do you make a venn diagram of the 6 branches of chemistry? (Inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, biochemistry, nuclear chemistry, physical chemistry, and analytical chemistry) like where would they go in the 3 circles
August 26, 2012 by jake

Chemistry - Buffers
A buffer is formed by adding 500mL of .20 M HC2H3O2 to 500 mL of .10 M NaC2H3O2. What would be the maximum amount of HCl that could be added to this solution without exceeding the capacity of the buffer? A. .01 mol B. .05 mol C. .10 mol D. .15 mol E. .20 mol [I know the ...
April 21, 2007 by alexa

chemistry
Choices: True,False. Select all that are True. The pH at the equivalence point of a weak base with a strong acid is expected to be less than 7 because of the presentce of the conjugated acid in the water. One cannot prepare a buffer from a strong acid and its conjugated base, ...
November 26, 2011 by paul

Chemistry
TRUE OR FALSE? 1) A solution that is made out of 1.00mol/L ammonia and 0.50mol/L of ammonium chloride is a basic buffer. 2) The pH at the equivalence point of a weak base with a strong acid is expected to be less than 7 because the acid that is added is very strong 3) The pH ...
December 8, 2012 by Lorenzo

Biology
In a lab experiment, we experimented with 1% glucose solution and Sorenson's solution to determine pH levels and whatnot; the other part of the lab was to determine which one, if either, was a buffering solution. According to the notes my instructor gave us, a buffers are ...
January 28, 2013 by Emily

Chemistry
I have a question about buffers. Part A So it starts with 20ml 0.1 sodium acetate and 25ml 0.1 acetic acid. Calculate ph of buffer is 4.74 because the acid and conjugate base have the same molarity correct? So the Ph is just pKa (1.8e-5)? Part B So the next part is add 5ml of ...
March 31, 2010 by Rio

chemistry
I have a chemistry project where I need to make an object move using my knowledge of chemistry. The object os a small ball teh size of a large marble. It must be moved using chemistry and NOT physics (ie slope wind etc). I am 15 and in grade 11.
April 8, 2010 by Didier

chemistry/stiochiometry
could someone please answer my chemistry/stoichiometry questions below both "anonymous one just chemistry on todays date
March 16, 2011 by "anonymous"

statistics
At a certain college, 15% of the students receieved an A in their required math cousre, 10% receieved an A in their required chemistry course, and 5% receieved an A in both. A student is selected at random. a.) What is the probability that he received an A in either chemistry ...
October 4, 2009 by Sharon

Chemistry
Our professor just told us that the final exam will be the ACS exam, we are taking general Chemistry II. What is the best way to study for ir? Is the preparing for ACS general chemistry study guide good? If we are taking general Chemistry II do we have to study Chemistry I again?
April 19, 2012 by Mima

Chemistry
Our professor just told us that the final exam will be the ACS exam, we are taking general Chemistry II. What is the best way to study for ir? Is the preparing for ACS general chemistry study guide good? If we are taking general Chemistry II do we have to study Chemistry I again?
April 19, 2012 by Mima

Chemistry (kind of)
Okay so this is actually for an english assignment where we have to report on a problem in our field....mine happens to be Chemistry so I was wondering what kind of problems or disputes can be caused in a chemistry lab...
February 6, 2009 by Stefanie

Math
If you pass general chemistry, then you can take organic chemistry. You pass general chemistry. You can take organic chemistry. Let P = you pass general chemistry Let Q = you can take organic chemistry I came up with P - >Q P therefore Q But my set up is wrong, how do I ...
January 21, 2011 by Madison

Chemistry
I'm having a hard time getting started studying for my chemistry midterm. i'm kind of overwhelmed. my teacher gave me a brief study guide, but where would be the best place to start? are notecards effective for studying chemistry?
January 12, 2008 by Catie

ap chemistry
I have taken ap chemistry but I have language barrier and sometimes I don't get it and I am getting behind.We are already in chapter 9.I don't want to quit. What is the best way to improve and learn faster?Any practice I should do?What is the experience taking ap chemistry ...
November 4, 2012 by zoya

Chemistry
Chemistry and engineering topics how chemistry relates to engineering for my 10 page research paper
May 31, 2014 by Mario Garcia

statistics
At a certain college, 15% of the students received an A in their required math course, 10% receieved an A in their required chemistry course, and 5% received an A in both. A student is selected at random. a.) What is the probability that he received an A in either chemistry or...
October 3, 2009 by Sharon

Chemistry
In polymer chemistry, it is often said that obtaining a polymer with certain desired physical properties is often more a problem of engineering than of chemistry. Why is this the case? bgfhftghgfgfnhgf
September 29, 2006 by Lindz

Ap chemistry
I'm taking ap chemistry also! I was just wondering about how much space they give you on an ap chemistry test the Multiple choice section, is it enough space for work? Do they give you scrap?
October 5, 2008 by Jaqui

Chemistry
In polymer chemistry, it is often said that obtaining a polymer with certain desired physical properties is often more a problem of engineering than of chemistry. Why is this the case?
September 28, 2006 by Lindz

Chemistry
Hi, I have to take chemistry placement test for college this week. Does anyone here have advice for studying to prepare for the test? I took chemistry in high school 2 years ago so I don't remember anything.
October 11, 2010 by Advice please

statistics
At a certain college, 15% of the students received an A in their required math course, 10% received an A in their required Chemistry course, 5% received an A in both. A student is selected at random. a.) What is the probability tha he receieved an A in either Chemistry or Math...
October 2, 2009 by Sharon

math
500 students sat for an examination in mathematics,physics and chemistry.45 passed all the three subject,60 passed mathematics and chemistry,70 passed physics and chemistry,50 passed mathematics and chemistry,10 passed in mathematics,80 passed in chemistry and 35 passed at ...
November 13, 2011 by damilola

Science
Which branches of science do pharmacists need knowledge of to do their job properly? A.physics and chemistry B.biology and chemistry C.chemistry and geology D.physics and computer science Is the answer B?
August 19, 2014 by Gwen

Chemistry
Compare the natural chemistry that takes place in the environment with the chemistry that takes place due to manmade factors like pollution. Discuss the effect of pollution at the local, regional, national, and global level.
February 20, 2012 by Jenn

chemistry
Describe the differance between chemistry and chemical technology. Technology is the making of applications. Chemical technology...making chemicals for practical or commercial purposes. Chemistry...the study of materials, their reactions
August 16, 2005 by Jane

grd 12 U chemistry
Hi, i have a project for chemistry, i have to choose a scientist (i chose Micheal Smith) his career is biochemistry and i have to create a career related to biochemistry.. Question: After finding the famous chemist and then using their field of chemistry, create a career that ...
September 28, 2013 by Sky

Grade 12 University Chemistry
Hi, i have a project for chemistry, i have to choose a scientist (i chose Micheal Smith) his career is biochemistry and i have to create a career related to biochemistry.. Question: After finding the famous chemist and then using their field of chemistry, create a career that ...
September 28, 2013 by Sky

just wondering...
what is harder, chemistry or physics? because i've been struggling all year in chemistry and i'm taking physics next year... i have a solid a in alg.2 though... oh yeah, and i want to be a physical therapist. so if i'm not to good in chemistry can i still be a physical ...
May 29, 2008 by sfdsajflkd

chemistry
I am doing stoicheometry and I need help. Is there anyone who knows about it? It's in my chemistry class. HELP! I am in tears and cannot figure this out.
March 2, 2010 by Rachel

Chemistry
Why was Wohler's synthesis of urea significant to the field of carbon chemistry? Please help. Thank you.
January 24, 2011 by John

chemistry
answers to latenite labs chemistry lab#9 stoichiometry by loss of CO2
January 19, 2012 by Anonymous

chemistry
I need some help with making a solubility rule for CrO4 -2 for my chemistry homework.
April 1, 2012 by Debbie

chemistry
hey i need help on finding a good oxidation chart for chemistry.
April 3, 2008 by shylo

chemistry
Where would you find iron II sulphide outside a chemistry laboratory?
January 10, 2009 by Nabiha

chemistry
Is Procion Red Dye a suitable model for chemistry lab?
December 2, 2009 by donna

Chemistry
I really need help with this; it'll be the last chemistry question I ask: 44. Identify the type of reaction. a. AB ---> A+B b. AB + C--> AC + B c. AB + CD --> AD + CB Thanks -MC
November 3, 2010 by mysterychicken

Chemistry II
Why is YBa2Cu3O7 a super conductor? Explain Chemistry and Structural bases.
February 16, 2011 by Brittney

chemistry
I need help on a balance ionic equation in chemistry Ca(NO3)2 + NaOH
January 27, 2013 by Anonymous

CHEMISTRY
how would a chemistry student make a 600 mL of 1.5 M solution of NaBr?
May 9, 2013 by David

CHEMISTRY
how would a chemistry student make a 600 mL of 1.5 M solution of NaBr?
May 9, 2013 by David

chemistry
where would you find calcium carbonate and sodium chloride outside a chemistry lab?
January 10, 2009 by Nabiha

chemistry
where would you find iron II oxide and sodium hydrogencarbonate outside a chemistry lab?
January 10, 2009 by Nabiha

Chemistry
This is question 4a on section a.12 chemistry. What will you observe happening to the balloon as it sits in the warm car
February 4, 2013 by Anonymous

Chemistry
What is the difference in molecular chemistry between silicone polymers and other polymeric materials?
April 4, 2013 by Violet

Chemistry
What is the difference in molecular chemistry between silicone polymers and other polymeric materials?
April 4, 2013 by Violet

Chemistry
What is the difference in molecular chemistry between silicone polymers and other polymeric materials?
April 4, 2013 by Violet

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