Saturday

November 28, 2015
**Statistics**

A researcher measures how positive a person’s mood is and how creative he or she is, obtaining the following interval scores: Participant Mood X Creativity Y 1 10 7 2 8 6 3 9 11 4 6 4 5 5 5 6 3 7 7 7 4 8 2 5 9 4 6 10 1 4 (a) Compute the statistic that summarizes this ...
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by Jessica*

**STATS **

Suppose that the average weight of students in a statistics class is 75.5 kilograms with a standard deviation of 10.3 kilograms. A. 45% of the student weights are above ____ kilograms? Z=.3264=x-75.5/10.3 Now what?
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by Tracy *

**Statistics**

Suppose that the average weight of students in a statistics class is 75.5 kilograms with a standard deviation of 10.3 kilograms. A. 45% of the student weights are above ____ kilograms? Z=.3264=x-75.5/10.3 Now what? I am lost! Please help me! Thanks!
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by Anonymous*

**Statistics**

Suppose that the average weight of students in a statistics class is 75.5 kilograms with a standard deviation of 10.3 kilograms. A. 45% of the student weights are above ____ kilograms? Z=.3264=x-75.5/10.3 Now what? I am lost! Please help me! Thanks!
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by Anonymous*

**Research and Statistics**

What does truncated range?
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by Stephanie*

**statistics**

The test scores of students in a class test have a mean of 65 and with a standard deviation of 8. What is the probable percentage of students scored more than 70? Please check work 70-65/8 = .625 = .2357 = 1.-.2357 = .7643 ANSWER 76% ????
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by Anonymous*

**Statistics**

(a) For the relationship in question 19, what is the proportion of variance accounted for? (b) What is the proportion of variance not accounted for? (c) Why or why not is this a valuable relationship?
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by Jessica*

**Research and Statistics**

What factors influence the size of the t-statistics( mean difference, variance, sample size) and which way?
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by Erica*

**Statistics in Psychology**

A researcher finds that the correlation between variable A and variable B is r= 5 1.20. She also finds that the correlation between variable C and variable B is r= 5 2.40. Which relationship is scientifically more useful and by how much?
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by Annie*

**Statistics in Psychology**

What research steps must you go through to use the relationship between a person’s intelligence and grade average in high school so that, if you know a person’s IQ, you can more accurately predict the person’s grade average?
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by Annie*

**statistics**

Population Mean: 170 STD: 62.3 Sample size 100 95% CI 99%CI
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by Anonymous*

**statistics**

You have an observation of 55, a population mean of 48, and a standard deviation of 1.85. Therefore, the z-score would be:
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by Anonymous*

**statistics**

The space shuttle is launched 9 times a year with a break down occurring 1/10 of the time. What is the probability that two randomly selected space shuttles launched 9 times a year and both having accidents occurring in that year?
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by Anonymous*

**UNM**

Suppose that the average weight of students in a statistics class is 75.5 kilograms with a standard deviation of 10.3 kilograms. A. 45% of the student weights are above ____ kilograms? B. What percent of students have weights greater than 80.1 kilograms? C. What percent of ...
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by Anonymous*

**UNM**

Suppose that the average weight of students in a statistics class is 75.5 kilograms with a standard deviation of 10.3 kilograms. 45% of the students weights are above what kilograms?
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by Anonymous*

**UNM **

Suppose that the average weight of students in a statistics class is 75.5 kilograms with a standard deviation of 10.3 kilograms. What percent of students have weights greater than 80.1 kilograms?
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by Anonymous*

**UNM**

Suppose that the average weight of students in a statistics class is 75.5 kilograms with a standard deviation of 10.3 kilograms. 42% of the students weights are above what kilograms?
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by Anonymous*

**statistics**

Provide the Z score and the critical value. Raw score of 112, population mean 89, Std. of the population (22.8)
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by lisa*

**statistics**

The test scores of students in a class test have a mean of 65 and with a standard deviation of 8. What is the probable percentage of students scored more than 70?
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by lisa*

**statistics**

A multiple choice exam has 20 questions; there are four choices for each question. A student guesses the answer to every question. Find the chance that he guesses correctly between four and seven times. Find the minimum score the instructor can set so that the probability that...
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by m*

**Statistics**

Age at onset of dementia was determined for a sample of adults between the ages of 60 and 75. For 15 subjects, the results were SumX=1008, and Sum(X-M)^2=140.4. Use this information to answer the following: a. What is the mean and SD for this data? b. Based on the data you ...
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by daniel*

**Statistics**

Age at onset of dementia was determined for a sample pf adults between the ages of 60 and 75. For 15 subjects, the results were SumX=1008, and Sum(X-M)^2=140.4. Use this information to answer the following: a. What is the mean and SD for this data? b. Based on the data you ...
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by daniel*

**STATISTICS**

What research steps must you go through to use the relationship between a person’s intelligence and grade average in high school so that, if you know a person’s IQ, you can more accurately predict the person’s grade average?
*Monday, February 10, 2014 by Anonymous1*

**Physics**

You buy yourself a new Lamborghini which can accelerate from 0 to 62 mph in 2.5 seconds. 1.) what is the magnitude of the car's acceleration in SI units? 2.)the latest figures on speeding related car accident fatalities show 32788 deaths per year in the united states. in ...
*Sunday, February 9, 2014 by Juanita*

**statistics**

Find the probability that among six randomly selected people, exactly four of them have brown eyes. Assume that 40% of the population has brown eyes
*Sunday, February 9, 2014 by mike*

**Research and Statistics**

Explain how to accept and reject the null? How to identify the null and alternative hypothesis for t-tests in both statistical and experimental hypothesis?
*Sunday, February 9, 2014 by Tiffany*

**statistics**

The height of an adult male is known to be normally distributed with a mean of 69 inches and a standard deviation of 2.5 inches. The height of the doorway is 74 inches. What proportion of adult males will not fit under the door?
*Sunday, February 9, 2014 by judy*

**Data apps and healthcare statistics**

what are the categories of information systems, examples of each and their roles in the healthcare delivery
*Sunday, February 9, 2014 by amanda*

**statistics**

Suppose a Stat 1450 web class has 15 males (8 are also students at OSU) and 12 females (7 are also students at OSU). What is the probability that a randomly selected student is either female, or also a student at OSU? Submit answer in decimal form and round to the nearest ...
*Saturday, February 8, 2014 by john smith*

**statistics**

A multiple choice test has 3 questions and each question has 3 choices. If Nacho takes this test, what is the probability that he will: (a)answer all questions correctly? (b)answer all questions wrong? (c)answer two questions correctly?
*Friday, February 7, 2014 by Venice*

**statistics**

a sample of men's heights was taken. The average height was 68.5 inches, the SD was 1.95 inches. Use the normal curve to estimate the percentage of men with heights between 69 inches and 70 inches.
*Friday, February 7, 2014 by brenda*

**Statistics**

Determine if the following are probability distributions (if no, state why). a. X 3 6 9 12 15 P(X) 4/9 2/9 1/9 1/9 1/9
*Friday, February 7, 2014 by Tyler *

**Statistics**

If the population is normally distribution then the sample must be normally distributed even for small sample size? True or False. The variance of the standard normal distribution is always equal to 1.? True or False. A continuous random variable may not be normally ...
*Friday, February 7, 2014 by Jamie*

**Statistics**

A salesperson goes door-to-door in a residential area to demonstrate the use of a new Household appliance to potential customers. She has found from her years of experience that after demonstration, the probability of purchase (long run average) is 0.30. To perform ...
*Friday, February 7, 2014 by Jamie*

**Statistics**

A salesperson goes door-to-door in a residential area to demonstrate the use of a new Household appliance to potential customers. She has found from her years of experience that after demonstration, the probability of purchase (long run average) is 0.30. To perform ...
*Friday, February 7, 2014 by Jamie*

**statistics**

how do the 4th grade girls weight in principal ben's school compare to the national mean weigh = 90 sd=15
*Thursday, February 6, 2014 by peggy*

**statistics**

howdo i find the square root of -2
*Thursday, February 6, 2014 by e*

**statistics**

A neuropsychologist is interested only in studying the most deviant portion of this population, that is, those individuals who fall within the top 10% and the bottom 10% of the distribution. She must determine the ages that mark these boundaries. What are these ages?
*Wednesday, February 5, 2014 by Mona*

**statistics**

A study was conducted to count the different age groups of kids that usually play in a park on a Sunday morning. The following data was collected Years Old Number of Kids 1 3 2 22 3 8 4 16 5 9 a) List the simple events of the experiment. b) What is the probability of each ...
*Tuesday, February 4, 2014 by K Wells*

**statistics**

A study was conducted to count the different age groups of kids that usually play in a park on a Sunday morning. The following data was collected Years Old Number of Kids 1 3 2 22 3 8 4 16 5 9 a) List the simple events of the experiment. b) What is the probability of each ...
*Tuesday, February 4, 2014 by K Wells*

**STATISTICS**

1. 28 young adults are asked how much time they spend, in minutes, per week on Pokémon. Their responses are shown below. 96 17 97 35 24 57 27 34 87 5 21 87 6 52 2 66 18 29 84 39 19 37 63 58 39 10 51 75 QUESTION IS THIS SAMPLE OR POPULATION?
*Tuesday, February 4, 2014 by NAOMIE*

**Statistics in Psychology**

Please help. Thank you in advance for your time. In an English class last semester, Foofy earned a 76 (x¯= 85, Sx= 10). Her friend, Bubbles, in a different class, earned a 60 (x¯= 50, Sx = 4). Should Foofy be bragging about how much better she did? Why?
*Monday, February 3, 2014 by Annie*

**Statistics in Psychology**

Please help with this question, THANK YOU in advance. A line should be over the top of both X’s. In an English class last semester, Foofy earned a 76 (X = 85, Sx = 10). Her friend, Bubbles, in a different class, earned a 60 (X=50, Sx = 4). Should Foofy be bragging about ...
*Monday, February 3, 2014 by Annie*

**Statistics in Psychology**

Please help me with both of these questions. THANK YOU in advance for your for you help. 13. For the data, 9 5 10 7 9 10 11 8 12 7 6 9 (a) Compute the z-score for the raw score of 10. (b) Compute the z-score for the raw score of 6. 14. For the data in question 13, find find ...
*Monday, February 3, 2014 by Annie*

**Statistics**

For an IQ test, we know the population n=100 and the ox = 16. We are interested in creating the sampling distribution when N = 64. (a) What does that sampling distribution of means show? (b) What is the shape of the distribution of IQ means and the mean of the distribution? (c...
*Monday, February 3, 2014 by Tonya*

**Statistics**

As part of studying the relationship between mental and physical health, you obtain the following heart rates: 73 72 67 74 78 84 79 71 76 76 79 81 75 80 78 76 78 In terms of differences in heart rates, interpret these data using the following: (a) the range, (b) the variance, ...
*Sunday, February 2, 2014 by Tonya*

**Statistics**

Please help me with this question: For an IQ test, we know the population 5 100 and the X 5 16. We are interested in creating the sampling distribution when N 5 64. (a) What does that sampling distribution of means show? (b) What is the shape of the distribution of IQ...
*Sunday, February 2, 2014 by Tonya*

**Statistics in Psychology **

QUESTION 25: In a study you obtain the following data representing the aggressive tendencies of some football players:40 30 39 40 41 39 31 28 33(a) Researchers have found that is 30 in the population of nonfootball players, 1X 5 5. 2 Using both tails of the sampling ...
*Sunday, February 2, 2014 by Tonya*

**Statistics**

Foofy says a deviation of +5 is always better than a deviation of -5. Why is she correct or incorrect?
*Sunday, February 2, 2014 by Sammie*

**Statistics**

As part of studying the relationship between mental and physical health, you obtain the following heart rates: 73 72 67 74 78 84 79 71 76 76 79 81 75 80 78 76 78
*Sunday, February 2, 2014 by Sammie*

**Statistics**

Assume that the data in question 25 reflect a highly skewed interval variable. (a) What statistics would you compute to summarize these conditions? (b) We compute them to be 14, 12, and 8.5, respectively. What conclusion about the study should you draw?(c) What conclusion ...
*Sunday, February 2, 2014 by Sammie*

**Statistics**

What does the empirical rule say about the proportion of players who are between 62.7 inches and 75.3 inches? c.
*Sunday, February 2, 2014 by Tyler *

**Statistics**

In a normal distribution of scores, four participants obtained the following deviation scores: +1, -2, +5, and -10. (a) Which score reflects the highest raw score? (b) Which score reflects the lowest raw score? (c) Rank-order the deviation scores in terms of their frequency, ...
*Sunday, February 2, 2014 by Sammie*

**Psychology (statistics)**

Assume that the data in question 25 reflect a highly skewed interval variable. (a) What statistics would you compute to summarize these conditions? (b) We compute them to be 14, 12, and 8.5, respectively. What conclusion about the study should you draw? (c) What conclusion ...
*Sunday, February 2, 2014 by Joy*

**Psychology (statistics)**

In an English class last semester, Foofy earned a 76 1X 5 85, SX 5 10). Her friend, Bubbles, in a different class, earned a 60 1X 5 50, SX 5 4). Should Foofy be bragging about how much better she did? Why?
*Sunday, February 2, 2014 by Joy*

**Statistics**

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of management training on the decisionmaking abilities of supervisors in a large corporation. Sixteen supervisors were selected and eight were randomly chosen to receive managerial training. Four trained and four untrained ...
*Sunday, February 2, 2014 by Tina*

**Statistics**

Data below corresponds to sample weights of two different types (A and B) of Tuna. We want to test at significance level = .05 if the two tuna populations from which the samples come have the same variance. A .99 1.92 1.23 .85 .65 .69 .6 .53 1.41 1.12 .63 .67 .6 .66 1.9 ...
*Sunday, February 2, 2014 by Tina*

**Statistics **

In a normal distribution of scores, four participants obtained the following deviation scores: 11, 22, 15, and 210. (a) Which score reflects the highest raw score? (b) Which score reflects the lowest raw score? (c) Rank-order the deviation scores in terms of their frequency, ...
*Sunday, February 2, 2014 by Joy*

**Statistics**

If I choose 5 cards at random, how many ways are there to get a full house?
*Sunday, February 2, 2014 by Tammie*

**statistics**

Height of children in kindergarten described by normal mode with mean 39.2 inches and standard deviation of 1.9 inches. What percent of children can expect to be less than 38 inches tall?
*Saturday, February 1, 2014 by Ann*

**Statistics**

Pine Pizza Palace sells pizza plain or with one or more of the following toppings: pepperoni, sausage, mushrooms, olives,onions, or anchovies. (six toppings or plain) How many different pizzas can be made? (Hint: A person can select or not select each item.)
*Saturday, February 1, 2014 by Tammie*

**statistics for managers**

Several statistical tests have a way to measure effect size. What is this, and when might you want to use it in looking at results from these tests on job related data?
*Thursday, January 30, 2014 by Anonymous*

**Statistics**

The per-store daily customer count (i.e., the mean number of customers in a store in one day) for a nationwide convenience store chain that operates nearly 10,000 stores has been steady, at 900, for some time. To increase the customer count, the chain is considering cutting ...
*Thursday, January 30, 2014 by Anonymous*

**Statistics**

The per-store daily customer count (i.e., the mean number of customers in a store in one day) for a nationwide convenience store chain that operates nearly 10,000 stores has been steady, at 900, for some time. To increase the customer count, the chain is considering cutting ...
*Thursday, January 30, 2014 by Anonymous*

**public speaking**

Mandy interviewed a source who told about how she was illegally treated by the police. using her information in the speech is an example of: a. facts and statistics b. narrative c. testimony d. hypothetical example i chose b
*Wednesday, January 29, 2014 by michelle*

**Statistics**

WEB CALCULATOR EXERCISE Descriptive Statistics 1 The table below presents data for a sample of people who completed a religious survey. Age Gender Denomination Church Attendance 56 1 7 4 46 2 6 5 49 2 6 5 49 1 1 5 27 2 9 5 51 1 4 2 47 2 2 3 67 1 5 4 49 2 2 6 33 1 12 6 55 2 9 5...
*Tuesday, January 28, 2014 by Joe*

**bio statistics**

using descriptive statistics for weight gain, a friend of yours had a baby and gained approximately 30 pounds during pregnancy. Explain to her why she should not be too depressed over this occurrence.
*Tuesday, January 28, 2014 by Anonymous*

**statistics**

Using the descriptive statistics for the weight of the babies in ounces suppose a friend of yours has given birth to a 10 pound 3 ounce baby. Is this unusual? why or why not?
*Tuesday, January 28, 2014 by Anonymous*

**Statistics**

The variance of the mathematical scores of a sample of 21 high school girls was found to be 100 and that of a sample of 25 high school boys was 169. Test the hypothesis that the scores of the high school boys are more varying that those of the high school girls at alpha = 0.05...
*Monday, January 27, 2014 by Anonymous*

**Statistics **

What I mean by a "running number" is that the average is always changing. If I turn in 10 homework assignments and the grades are as follows: 58, 87, 99, 90, 92, 95, 89, 90, 95, 91 then my average is 88.6. If I turn in 10 more assignments my average changes, we don&#...
*Sunday, January 26, 2014 by Help *

**statistics**

A psychologist studied self esteem scores and found the sample data set to be normally distributed with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 5?
*Saturday, January 25, 2014 by Stephanie*

**statistics**

when will I know it is time to calculate the mean? Is the mean a running number?
*Saturday, January 25, 2014 by Help *

**Statistics**

In an essay of 250-500 words, thoroughly address the following items and respond to the related questions: 1.Define the term standard deviation. Why is it important to know the standard deviation for a given sample? What do researchers learn about a normal distribution from ...
*Thursday, January 23, 2014 by Andrew*

**statistics**

do we need to calculate z in order to use the critical value like we did when we calculated the p value?
*Monday, January 20, 2014 by Help *

**statistics**

4 Find: a. The z score for each male salary, based on only the male salaries. b. The z score for each female salary, based on only the female salaries. c. The z score for each female compa, based on only the female compa values. d. The z score for each male compa, based on ...
*Sunday, January 19, 2014 by Anonymous*

**statistics**

What is the probability for a: a. Randomly selected person being a male in grade E? b. Randomly selected male being in grade E? c. Why are the results different?
*Sunday, January 19, 2014 by Anonymous*

**Statistics for Business**

Consider the GPA’s for the following 15 students 3.10, 3.20, 3.49, 2.68, 3.73, 3.39, 3.80, 3.11, 3.10, 3.10, 4.0, 3.89, 2.55, 4.0, and 3.75 a) Compute the max, min, Q1, median 3.9, Q3, IQR, and range 1.45 b) Using the variables from part a), construct a box plot for GPA. ...
*Sunday, January 19, 2014 by thomas*

**Statistics for Business**

Consider the following sample of data: 11.2, 28.4, 32.6, 17, 13.5, 2.2, 38, 41.4, 1.9, 14.4, 21.8, 23.8 a) Calculate the max, min, Q1, median, and Q3 b) Calculate the average c) Calculate the standard deviation d) Calculate the variance
*Sunday, January 19, 2014 by thomas*

**statistics**

A lottery uses 4 urns containing chips 0 to 9. One chip is selected at random from each urn. How many sample points are in the sample space?
*Saturday, January 18, 2014 by betty*

**statistics**

. Consider a football team for whom the numbers on the active players’ jerseys are 29, 41, 50, 58, 79, and 10, (listed in order of the players’ names). Does it make sense to calculate the means of those numbers? Why or why not?
*Saturday, January 11, 2014 by Anonymous*

**Statistics**

Students are being surveyed about the weight of books and supplies they are carrying as they attend class. a. Identify the variable of interest b. Identify the type of variable c. List a few values that might occur in a sample
*Saturday, January 11, 2014 by Rosemarie*

**Statistics**

Blossom’s Flowers purchases roses for sale for Valentine’s Day. The roses are purchased for $10 a dozen and are sold for $20 a dozen. Any roses not sold on Valentine’s Day can be sold for $5 per dozen. The owner will purchase 1 of 3 amounts of roses for ...
*Friday, January 10, 2014 by Daniel*

**Statistics**

Hi * Suppose X has the pdf f(x)=(1/2)e^-|x| if -∞<x<∞ a)find the pdf of Y=|X|^3 b) Let W=0 if x<=0 and W=1 if x>1. Find cdf (cum.dist.func) of W.
*Friday, January 10, 2014 by Melike *

**Statistics**

hii. I have a question about pdf and cdf.. I couldn't solve it Please help me :/ 1) the pdf of the random var. X is given by f(x)= (3/8)(x+1)^2 if -1<x<1 0 if otherwise Find the pdf of a) Y=1-X^2 b) Y=1-X^2 ifx<=0 and Y=1-X if x>0
*Friday, January 10, 2014 by Melike *

**statistics**

You are interested in the weights of backpacks students carry to class and decide to conduct a study using the backpacks carried by 30 students. (a) Give some instructions for weighing the backpacks. Include unit of measure, accuracy of measure, and type of scale.
*Wednesday, January 8, 2014 by henok*

**statistics**

For a particular population, a sample of n = 4 scores has an expected value of 10. For the same population, a sample of n = 25 scores would have an expected value of ____. a. 4 b. 8 c. 10 d. 20
*Wednesday, January 8, 2014 by Lyndyc*

**statistics**

A sample from a population with = 40 and = 10 has a mean of M = 44. If the sample mean corresponds to a z = 2.00, then how many scores are in the sample? a. n = 100 b. n = 25 c. n = 5 d. n = 4
*Wednesday, January 8, 2014 by Lyndyc*

**statistics**

True Or False Using the average score to describe a sample is an example of inferential statistics. By reading the definition in my book I feel as though this phrase is false. Can someone please advise on this matter?
*Tuesday, January 7, 2014 by Lyndyc*

**statistics**

True or False If one score is randomly selected from a normal distribution with = 100 and = 20, the probability of obtaining a score between X = 80 and X = 120 is 0.3413.
*Monday, January 6, 2014 by Lyndyc*

**statistics**

True or False For any normal distribution, the proportion corresponding to scores greater than z = +1.00 is exactly equal to the proportion corresponding to scores less than z = 1.00.
*Monday, January 6, 2014 by Lyndyc*

**Language Arts**

Anybody out there from 7th grade connections academy??! need help checking my answers!!: 1. The author's tone in this editorial is (1 point) sad humorous compassionate angry 2. What is the key phrase used to signal a comparison or contrast in the following statement? "...
*Saturday, January 4, 2014 by TTR+S<3*

**Math**

I need assistance with statistics and probability. Can you some how assist me with that.?
*Friday, January 3, 2014 by Adrianna *

**statistics**

True or False For a sample with M = 20 and s = 1, a score of X = 17 would be considered an extremely low score.
*Friday, January 3, 2014 by Lyndyc*

**statistics**

True or False A sample mean with a z-score value between 1.00 and +1.00 would be considered a fairly typical, representative sample.
*Friday, January 3, 2014 by Lyndyc*

**statistics**

true or false The value for the standard deviation cannot be larger than the value for the range.
*Friday, January 3, 2014 by Lyndyc*

**statistics**

True or False The class interval of 25-29 has real limits of 24.5 and 29.5.
*Wednesday, January 1, 2014 by Lyndyc*

**statistics**

A random sample of n = 4 scores is selected from a population with ƒÝ = 80 and ƒã = 20. On average, how much difference would you expect between the sample mean and the population mean? a. 0 points (the sample mean should be the same as the population ...
*Tuesday, December 31, 2013 by Lyndyc*

**statistics**

Last week Tom had exams in Math and in Spanish. He had a score of 45 on the Math exam and a score of 65 on the Spanish exam. For which class should Tom expect the better grade? a. Math b. Spanish c. The grades should be the same because the two exam scores are in the same ...
*Tuesday, December 31, 2013 by Lyndyc*

**statistics**

The sum of the squared deviation scores is SS = 20 for a population of N = 5 scores. What is the variance for this population? a. 4 b. 5 c. 80 d. 100
*Tuesday, December 31, 2013 by Lyndyc*

**statistics**

Needing help to get this answer right. _c___ 3. What is the relationship between the alpha level, the size of the critical region, and the risk of a Type I error? a. As the alpha level increases, the size of the critical region increases and the risk of a Type I error ...
*Sunday, December 29, 2013 by Lyn*