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1. The Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans emerged as separate political parties partly as a result of disagreement over — *
how the nation should develop economically
whether to enforce the Monroe Doctrine
how the nation should admit new states
whether to approve the Declaration of Independence
2. Disagreements between these two cabinet members led to — *
the creation of reservations for American Indians
a struggle to ratify the Bill of Rights
the establishment of the first U.S. political parties
a compromise over slavery in western territories
3. In Marbury v. Madison, the Supreme Court established a principle that would eventually be used by all courts to — *
strike down any law that the court deems unconstitutional
decide the outcome of contested election results
overturn any impeachment that the court deems unsupported by evidence
mediate disputes related to commerce between states
4. Which sentence best completes the diagram? *
The supply of British goods decreases.
Congress ends the European embargo.
Exports to Great Britain increase.
Congress reduces tariffs.
5. After the War of 1812, thousands of settlers and immigrants moved to the western frontiers of the United States in search of farming and business opportunities. In response, the government began building roads. This transportation network was intended to — *
promote the free-enterprise system
establish federal control over industry
discourage the organization of new territories
prevent border disputes between states
6. Which action completes this diagram above? *
oversee state government agencies
regulate the creation of new businesses
establish a national bank
eliminate protective tariffs
7. What was one of the challenges George Washington faced as first President of the United States? *
deciding which exports to foreign countries should be taxed
defending the Southern border of the United States against attacks from Spain
paying off debts from the American Revolution
determining how many Senators each state should have in Congress
8. Which date above is correctly paired with an event that occurred on that date? *
9. This picture shows President George Washington gathering troops to suppress a rebellion. Why did President Washington assemble these troops? *
Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson had divided the nation into two opposing factions.
South Carolina refused to collect the tariff on manufactured goods passed by Congress.
Farmers in Pennsylvania refused to pay the whiskey tax demanded under Hamilton’s financial plan.
Congress had refused to approve President Washington’s plans to expand the size of the army.
10. Which of the following completes the excerpt? *
War of 1812
French and Indian War
The Whiskey Rebellion
11. Which of the following is generally viewed as the chief foreign policy success of President Thomas Jefferson? *
the formation of a military alliance for the defense of Latin America
the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France
the successful defense of the United States in the War of 1812
the announcement of new limits on European colonization in the Western Hemisphere
12. Which landmark Supreme Court decision first announced the Court’s power of judicial review? *
Marbury v. Madison
McCulloch v. Maryland
Gibbons v. Ogden
Dred Scott v. Sandford
13. How did the disruption in Atlantic shipping prior to and during the War of 1812 significantly affect the U.S. economy? *
Imports of raw materials increased in the Northeast.
Americans emigrated to Europe to find manufacturing jobs.
Cotton sales from southern states to Europe increased.
American industries expanded to provide replacements for foreign goods.
14. The characteristics identified in the boxes above best describe the — *
Sons of Liberty
15. When President George Washington suppressed a rebellion of farmers in Western Pennsylvania for refusing to pay the whiskey tax, he — *
acted to strengthen the authority of the new federal government
showed his determination to build a large standing army
created the framework for a future personal income tax
demonstrated his opposition to Alexander Hamilton’s financial plan
16. Which form of taxation is used by governments to collect revenue from international trade? *
17. Disagreement over the issues as represented in the cartoon above led to the — *
start of the American Revolution
passage of the Northwest Ordinance
formation of political parties
passage of protective tariffs
18. In 1790, Alexander Hamilton proposed the creation of a national bank. Which of the following is one of the reasons that people like Thomas Jefferson opposed the creation of a national bank? *
There was a high probability that the bank would fail.
The bank was not necessary because the federal government did not have any money.
The bank would cause high inflation, and it would harm the economy.
The Constitution did not specifically grant the government the power to create the bank.
19. One of the issues facing the early nation was how to interpret the Constitution. Alexander Hamilton said that the Constitution gave Congress the power "to make all laws necessary and proper." Which statement best describes Hamilton's views on how the Constitution should be interpreted?
He favored a strict interpretation of the Constitution.
He favored a partisan interpretation of the Constitution.
He favored a broad interpretation of the Constitution.
He favored an inconsistent interpretation of the Constitution.
20. Which of these best completes the diagram above? *
Annex western territories
Avoid foreign alliances
Recognize states’ rights
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