July 23, 2014

Homework Help: PHI 208 Week 3 Reading Quiz

Posted by Jamski on Sunday, April 6, 2014 at 8:21pm.

Question 1. 1. It is unfair to criticize the profit-making purpose of business because: (Points : 1)
it is in the nature of corporations and in the definition for their existence to form as a means to organize human effort more efficiently in order to maximize profits.
as Adam Smith argues, society benefits more when persons seek to increase their profits in business than if they attempted to “affect trade for the public good.”
in an ideal free market, no one (including the government) should coerce anyone else to cooperate for cooperation must be voluntary and the contribution made must be one’s own and not from other persons’ income.
all of the above.

Question 2. 2. How are employees negatively affected? (Points : 1)
They have specialized skills for which there is no perfectly elastic market. Since the company’s actions could mean the demise of the company, the employees’ jobs are at stake, as well as their wages, raises, benefits, and future security.
They are expected to follow the instructions of management, which may be difficult if adverse effects are noticed.
They are expected to speak well of the company, which may be a challenge if the actions of the company are known to employees to be less than morally justifiable.
All of the above.

Question 3. 3. Harm may be understood as: (Points : 1)
financial, physical, and emotional harm.
quantifiable harm.
direct but not third-party harm.
all of the above.

Question 4. 4. How does Milton Friedman present the common understanding of socially responsible acts on the part of business? (Points : 1)
To prevent a price increase even if a price increase is justified.
In addition to meeting its obligations to clean up the pollution that its operations have caused, to seek go above and beyond the legal requirements set for the social objective of improving the environment.
To attempt to reduce poverty by hiring the “hardcore unemployed” instead of qualified candidates.
All of the above

Question 5. 5. A lie, according to Kant, is: (Points : 1)
something that I can will on the basis of my self-interests.
not something that I can will as a universal law.
not something that can constitute a maxim.
all of the above.

Question 6. 6. What other similarity can we find in Freeman’s stakeholder theory with Kant’s moral theory? (Points : 1)
We can find it in the notion of fairness by agreeing to participate in contract negotiations in
ignorance of their actual stakes.
We can find it in a distributive notion of justice such that all stakeholders must share the costs of contracting as well as those involved in any reparations.
We can find it in the notion of autonomy, which is shared also with classical liberal ideology, in which each stakeholder must be free to enter into agreements voluntarily, without coercion of any sort, and with the recognition of the gains to be had by all parties of the agreement.
We can find it in the notion of laissez-faire, in which the parties of any agreement with the corporation enter freely and without any government restrictions (tariffs) or aids (subsidies), or any regulatory control.

Question 7. 7. What is Larmer’s criticism of Duska’s argument? (Points : 1)
Loyalty is relative.
Loyalty does not need to be reciprocal, it can still be directed at persons in the firm and not merely to the firm, an economic motive does not rule out a moral justification for whistleblowing.
Both A and B are true.
Neither A and B are true.

Question 8. 8. According to Kant, persons: (Points : 1)
Are rational beings.
Must always be regarded as an end.
Have only relative value as a means.
are both A and B.

Question 9. 9. According to Kant, a maxim is: (Points : 1)
a rule of action that I also will to be a universal law.
the motivation to aim for the greatest happiness for the greatest number.
the rule that reflects what I believe is the best outcome from the act.
none of the above.

Question 10. 10. According to Kant, the moral worth of an action: (Points : 1)
does not lie in the effect expected from the action but only conforms to the moral law.
lies in the moral worth expected to result from the action.
is relative.
is subjective.

Question 11. 11. Which businessmen, according to Friedman, are typically excluded in the rhetoric of the social responsibility of business? (Points : 1)
Individual proprietors of small businesses.
Corporate executives.
None of the above.

Question 12. 12. Kant explains that respect for a person is: (Points : 1)
the recognition of the moral worth of the person by virtue of his/her talents.
the result of our will.
both A and B
none of the above.

Question 13. 13. The legal argument that Freeman presents can be summed up like this: caveat emptor has been replaced with caveat venditor. This means that: (Points : 1)
modern consumer protection laws still place the burden of responsibility on the consumer for finding defects in the product prior to purchase.
modern consumer protection laws have minimized the importance of the responsibility of the consumer in becoming informed prior to purchase and now the responsibility falls on the seller such that any disclaimers not made in the product can be subject to claims for compensation by consumers.
changes in modern consumer protection laws have carved out rights to all groups that have a stake in corporations, such as consumers, suppliers, employees, managers, and local communities in which the corporation conducts business.
both B and C are true.

Question 14. 14. A perfect duty: (Points : 1)
is a duty that has no exception.
is not founded on self-interest.
conforms with a universal law.
all of the above

Question 15. 15. What is the argument by Ronald Duska, which Robert Larmer presents? (Points : 1)
That loyalty can only exist in a relationship between moral agents and it is not characterized by self-interest, which is the case of an employer-employee relationship.
That loyalty does not need to be reciprocal in order to be genuine.
Both A and B are true.
Neither A and B are true.

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