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PHI 208 Week 3 Reading Quiz

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Question 1. 1. It is unfair to criticize the profit-making purpose of business because: (Points : 1)
it is in the nature of corporations and in the definition for their existence to form as a means to organize human effort more efficiently in order to maximize profits.
as Adam Smith argues, society benefits more when persons seek to increase their profits in business than if they attempted to “affect trade for the public good.”
in an ideal free market, no one (including the government) should coerce anyone else to cooperate for cooperation must be voluntary and the contribution made must be one’s own and not from other persons’ income.
all of the above.


Question 2. 2. How are employees negatively affected? (Points : 1)
They have specialized skills for which there is no perfectly elastic market. Since the company’s actions could mean the demise of the company, the employees’ jobs are at stake, as well as their wages, raises, benefits, and future security.
They are expected to follow the instructions of management, which may be difficult if adverse effects are noticed.
They are expected to speak well of the company, which may be a challenge if the actions of the company are known to employees to be less than morally justifiable.
All of the above.


Question 3. 3. Harm may be understood as: (Points : 1)
financial, physical, and emotional harm.
quantifiable harm.
direct but not third-party harm.
all of the above.


Question 4. 4. How does Milton Friedman present the common understanding of socially responsible acts on the part of business? (Points : 1)
To prevent a price increase even if a price increase is justified.
In addition to meeting its obligations to clean up the pollution that its operations have caused, to seek go above and beyond the legal requirements set for the social objective of improving the environment.
To attempt to reduce poverty by hiring the “hardcore unemployed” instead of qualified candidates.
All of the above


Question 5. 5. A lie, according to Kant, is: (Points : 1)
something that I can will on the basis of my self-interests.
not something that I can will as a universal law.
not something that can constitute a maxim.
all of the above.


Question 6. 6. What other similarity can we find in Freeman’s stakeholder theory with Kant’s moral theory? (Points : 1)
We can find it in the notion of fairness by agreeing to participate in contract negotiations in
ignorance of their actual stakes.
We can find it in a distributive notion of justice such that all stakeholders must share the costs of contracting as well as those involved in any reparations.
We can find it in the notion of autonomy, which is shared also with classical liberal ideology, in which each stakeholder must be free to enter into agreements voluntarily, without coercion of any sort, and with the recognition of the gains to be had by all parties of the agreement.
We can find it in the notion of laissez-faire, in which the parties of any agreement with the corporation enter freely and without any government restrictions (tariffs) or aids (subsidies), or any regulatory control.


Question 7. 7. What is Larmer’s criticism of Duska’s argument? (Points : 1)
Loyalty is relative.
Loyalty does not need to be reciprocal, it can still be directed at persons in the firm and not merely to the firm, an economic motive does not rule out a moral justification for whistleblowing.
Both A and B are true.
Neither A and B are true.


Question 8. 8. According to Kant, persons: (Points : 1)
Are rational beings.
Must always be regarded as an end.
Have only relative value as a means.
are both A and B.


Question 9. 9. According to Kant, a maxim is: (Points : 1)
a rule of action that I also will to be a universal law.
the motivation to aim for the greatest happiness for the greatest number.
the rule that reflects what I believe is the best outcome from the act.
none of the above.


Question 10. 10. According to Kant, the moral worth of an action: (Points : 1)
does not lie in the effect expected from the action but only conforms to the moral law.
lies in the moral worth expected to result from the action.
is relative.
is subjective.


Question 11. 11. Which businessmen, according to Friedman, are typically excluded in the rhetoric of the social responsibility of business? (Points : 1)
Individual proprietors of small businesses.
Corporate executives.
CEOs.
None of the above.


Question 12. 12. Kant explains that respect for a person is: (Points : 1)
the recognition of the moral worth of the person by virtue of his/her talents.
the result of our will.
both A and B
none of the above.


Question 13. 13. The legal argument that Freeman presents can be summed up like this: caveat emptor has been replaced with caveat venditor. This means that: (Points : 1)
modern consumer protection laws still place the burden of responsibility on the consumer for finding defects in the product prior to purchase.
modern consumer protection laws have minimized the importance of the responsibility of the consumer in becoming informed prior to purchase and now the responsibility falls on the seller such that any disclaimers not made in the product can be subject to claims for compensation by consumers.
changes in modern consumer protection laws have carved out rights to all groups that have a stake in corporations, such as consumers, suppliers, employees, managers, and local communities in which the corporation conducts business.
both B and C are true.


Question 14. 14. A perfect duty: (Points : 1)
is a duty that has no exception.
is not founded on self-interest.
conforms with a universal law.
all of the above


Question 15. 15. What is the argument by Ronald Duska, which Robert Larmer presents? (Points : 1)
That loyalty can only exist in a relationship between moral agents and it is not characterized by self-interest, which is the case of an employer-employee relationship.
That loyalty does not need to be reciprocal in order to be genuine.
Both A and B are true.
Neither A and B are true.

  • PHI 208 Week 3 Reading Quiz -

    These questions call for biased answers which only you can do based on your ideals and your readings.

  • PHI 208 Week 3 Reading Quiz -

    The economic argument that Freeman presents the view that Adam Smith’s “invisible hand” doctrine does not take into account externalities, moral hazards, and monopoly power. Since there are no incentives to incur in costs of internalizing the negative effects of a corporation’s production and marketing operations, then this means that:
    CORRECT both A and B are true.


    A lie, according to Kant, is:
    CORRECT all of the above.


    Which is one of the claims that Milton Friedman presents to make the case that a corporate executive who undertakes acts that are in line with the common understanding of corporate social responsibility is also accepting the doctrine of socialism?
    CORRECT The doctrine of socialism is accepted when it is believed that the centrally directed political mechanism is the most efficient way to allocate scarce resources to their most efficient uses.


    How can we best understand Milton Friedman’s objection that only persons, not businesses (i.e., corporations), have responsibilities?
    CORRECT All of the above.



    DeGeorge explains that whistleblowing moves from being morally permissible to mandatory when:
    CORRECT there is sufficient documented evidence, and there is strong reason to believe that only by going public will the practice cease.



    The legal argument that Freeman presents can be summed up like this: caveat emptor has been replaced with caveat venditor. This means that:
    CORRECT both B and C are true.



    Milton Friedman’s main point is not to argue against socially responsible goals but:
    CORRECT against government-imposed social goals.



    According to DeGeorge, whistleblowing is morally permissible when the following condition(s) is/are met:
    CORRECT all of the above.


    What is Larmer’s criticism of Duska’s argument?
    CORRECT Loyalty does not need to be reciprocal, it can still be directed at persons in the firm and not merely to the firm, an economic motive does not rule out a moral justification for whistleblowing.


    What is the explanation of the standard view on whistleblowing presented by Sissela Bok and reported by Robert Larmer in his article?
    CORRECT The whistleblower is seen as violating the oaths of loyalty and confidentiality with the firm.



    How are employees negatively affected?
    CORRECT All of the above.


    Edward Freeman article does not criticize capitalism nor does it seek its demise. Rather, it argues that managers (what Milton Friedman calls corporate executives) do not merely have a fiduciary duty to stockholders but also to:
    CORRECT stakeholders.


    Kant claims that the moral law is given to each person by:
    CORRECT one’s own will.


    According to Kant, a maxim is:
    CORRECT a rule of action that I also will to be a universal law.


    According to Kant, the moral worth of an action:
    CORRECT does not lie in the effect expected from the action but only conforms to the moral law.

  • PHI 208 Week 3 Reading Quiz -

    Which businessmen, according to Friedman, are typically excluded in the rhetoric of the social responsibility of business?
    CORRECT Individual proprietors of small businesses.


    Kant explains that respect for a person is:
    CORRECT both A and B


    It is unfair to criticize the profit-making purpose of business because:
    CORRECT all of the above.

    According to Kant, the moral worth of an action:
    CORRECT does not lie in the effect expected from the action but only conforms to the moral law.

    What is the argument by Ronald Duska, which Robert Larmer presents?
    CORRECT That loyalty can only exist in a relationship between moral agents and it is not characterized by self-interest, which is the case of an employer-employee relationship.


    What is the Kantian (deontological) criticism that Lop raises against DeGeorge’s position?
    CORRECT DeGeorge does not consider that the pursuit of doing the right thing will also bring about negative consequences, including that to the whistleblower.


    Milton Friedman’s main point is not to argue against socially responsible goals but:
    CORRECT against government-imposed social goals.


    According to Kant, persons:
    CORRECT are both A and B.


    A lie, according to Kant, is:
    CORRECT all of the above.


    By stakeholders, Freeman refers to:
    CORRECT all groups that have a stake or claim in the firm.


    How are suppliers negatively affected?
    CORRECT Both A and B are true.


    The legal argument that Freeman presents can be summed up like this: caveat emptor has been replaced with caveat venditor. This means that:
    CORRECT both B and C are true.


    Milton Friedman argues that persons may choose to undertake social responsibilities to their communities, churches, or nations, and devote their own incomes to causes that they deem morally worthy. But, he adds, if corporate executives attempt to take such social responsibilities or to direct the corporation’s profits to such personal causes, without approval from the shareholders, then:
    CORRECT both B and C.


    How does Milton Friedman present the common understanding of socially responsible acts on the part of business?
    CORRECT All of the above


    How would the Kantian moral theory apply in resolving the negative effects on a community?
    CORRECT By treating persons in the community as ends in themselves, then companies will strive to provide quality products as well as to remedy any negative effects imposed on the local community by instances of externalities, moral hazard, or abuse of monopoly power.

  • PHI 208 Week 3 Reading Quiz -

    According to Kant, persons:
    CORRECT are both A and B.


    Milton Friedman argues that even if the corporate executive were justified in funding social causes with his/her corporation’s profits, he/she could not achieve the success of such social causes because:
    CORRECT All of the above.


    What is Larmer’s criticism of Duska’s argument?
    CORRECT Loyalty does not need to be reciprocal, it can still be directed at persons in the firm and not merely to the firm, an economic motive does not rule out a moral justification for whistleblowing.


    What other similarity can we find in Freeman’s stakeholder theory with Kant’s moral theory?
    CORRECT We can find it in the notion of autonomy, which is shared also with classical liberal ideology, in which each stakeholder must be free to enter into agreements voluntarily, without coercion of any sort, and with the recognition of the gains to be had by all parties of the agreement.


    Kant claims that the moral law is given to each person by:
    CORRECT one’s own will.


    Which one of these is not a principle that can be drawn from the Categorical Imperative?
    CORRECT Act so that the maxim of your action ensures the satisfaction of your desires.


    Reason is a faculty that we have that:
    CORRECT is both B and C.


    A perfect duty:
    CORRECT all of the above

    How would the Kantian moral theory apply in resolving the negative effects on a community?
    CORRECT By treating persons in the community as ends in themselves, then companies will strive to provide quality products as well as to remedy any negative effects imposed on the local community by instances of externalities, moral hazard, or abuse of monopoly power.


    What is the explanation of the standard view on whistleblowing presented by Sissela Bok and reported by Robert Larmer in his article?
    CORRECT The whistleblower is seen as violating the oaths of loyalty and confidentiality with the firm.


    According to Friedman, what are the responsibilities of corporate executives?
    CORRECT All of the above.


    Kant explains that respect for a person is:
    CORRECT both A and B


    It is unfair to criticize the profit-making purpose of business because:
    CORRECT all of the above.

    According to Kant, a maxim is:
    CORRECT a rule of action that I also will to be a universal law.

    According to Kant, the moral worth of an action:
    CORRECT does not lie in the effect expected from the action but only conforms to the moral law.

  • PHI 208 Week 3 Reading Quiz -

    Milton Friedman observes that if the same argument that advocates of corporate social responsibility say should be brought to corporate shareholders is instead brought before union members, the logical bankruptcy of the argument would be clearly evident because

  • PHI 208 Week 3 Reading Quiz -

    How does Milton Friedman present the common understanding of socially responsible acts on the part of business?

    All of the above

  • PHI 208 Week 3 Reading Quiz -

    Milton Friedman observes that if the same argument that advocates of corporate social responsibility say should be brought to corporate shareholders is instead brought before union members, the logical bankruptcy of the argument would be clearly evident because:

    both A and B.

  • PHI 208 Week 3 Reading Quiz -

    Harm may be understood as: (Points : 1)

  • PHI 208 Week 3 Reading Quiz -

    physically, emotionally, or financially

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