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6. Within an x-ray tube, a metal disc (the anode) receives a huge amount of energy that is converted to internal energy (heat) within the anode. The surface temperature can easily reach 2000° C. Because the anode is within a vacuum and therefore there is no air around the anode, a cooling fan cannot be used. Many physics concepts are used to design the anode to minimize the temperature rise (to avoid reaching the melting point of the metal) despite all of the energy received. Identify any two possible physics concepts that could be used, and explain how each could minimize temperature rise.

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